Saturday, August 31, 2019

Hinduism religion Essay

Hinduism is the religion of the great majority of the people of India. The word comes from the Sanskrit sindhu, â€Å"river,† and originally referred to the Indus. Hinduism is actually a collection of many native Indian religions, past and present. It is responsible for the social structure of India, especially for the caste system (a hereditary class system). Hinduism has some 684,000,000 adherents, most known of whom live in India. The rest live in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and countries with Indian settlements. The oldest of the world’s great religions, Hinduism is the only one without a founder. It has never tried to win converts by force and has always tolerated other religions and absorbed ideas from them (Chaudhuri 291). Hinduism has about 20 sects, with beliefs that range from primitive forms of animism to the highest reaches of mysticism and philosophy. Many of the sects and cults seem to be separate religions. Yet all have a family relationship since they spring from common traditions and thrive on the conditions peculiar to India. Most have a mystic strain and all stress nonviolence. Hinduism began to develop about 1500 B. C. while the Vedas were being composed and collected. Vedic Hinduism, or Vedism, had many nature gods, who were appealed to and appeased by prayers and sacrifices. A second stage, called Brahminic Hinduism, appeared about 1000 B. C. In this stage religion had fallen under the control of the Brahmins, or priests, who used magic rites in efforts to influence and control the gods (Wilkins 114). A third period opened about 800 B. C. with the speculative philosophy of the Upanishads. Salvation was sought, not through sacrifices and rites, but through knowledge. Six schools of Hindu philosophy arose, the most important being those of Yoga and Vedanta. In the sixth century B. C. Jainism and Buddhism arose as reform movements within Hinduism but both became separate religions. Moslem invaders conquered India after the 10th century A. D. Hinduism withstood the rival religion Islam but absorbed a few features from it. The clash between the two religions led to the founding of Sikhism in the 19th century. In the 19th century Christian and western ideas presented a new challenge. Several Hindu reform movements borrowed from Christianity and the West. When India became independent in 1947 the conflict between Hindus and Moslems forced a division of the country, the Moslem section becoming Pakistan (Wilkins 121)). II. Discussions A. Beliefs and Practices of Hinduism. Nearly all the sects and cults respect the Vedas (â€Å"revealed knowledge†), the ancient collections of religious writings. The Rig-Veda, whose origins probably go back to before 1500 B. C. , consists of about 1,000 hymns and prayers addressed to various deities. Later Vedas are the Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda. The philosophical portions of the Vedas are the Upanishads (â€Å"approaches†). These are speculative treatise dealing with the nature of man and the universe. The fundamental doctrine is that of the identity of the individual soul with the universal soul (Brahman), or God (Kinsley 205). Brahman exists through a trinity of gods. Brahman is the principle of creation, Vishnu of preservation, and Siva of destruction. In addition to this trinity, most villages have their own godlings, demons, spirits, and ghosts to which the people make sacrifices and prayers. Vishnu is believed to have appeared from time to time in avatars, or divine incarnations, in both animal and human forms. The highest human forms are Rama and Krishna, who are worshipped as savior deities (Chaudhuri 297). Hinduism has many sacred objects and places. The cow is the most sacred of animals and must be protected. Most sacred of all places is the Ganges River, to which millions go each year to bathe and to become purified. Hindus believe in rebirth, or reincarnation, and in what they call the law of karma. Under this law the conditions of each new lifetime are determined by the actions of the preceding life. To the Hindu, salvation consists of liberating the soul from attachment to worldly desires in order to gain union with Brahman. If a Hindu dies liberated he must be born again into this world and again endure its suffering (Chaudhuri 299). The Vedas describe four main castes. 1. The Brahmins exercise spiritual power. (Brahmin is also spelled Brahman). 2. The Kshatriyas are warriors who exercise secular power. 3. The Vaisyas are merchants and cultivators. 4. The Sudras are artisans and laborers. Indian society has thousands of castes and subcastes, each of which identifies itself with one of the four castes in Hindu literature. Membership in a caste is based on family association and occupation. Below the castes are the outcastes, or untouchables, who historically have been denied certain social rights. The Indian constitution of 1950 outlawed discrimination against untouchables. The scriptures do not make the caste system an essential element of Hinduism, but it is perpetuated by tradition (Wilkins 139). Hindu worship for most part takes place in the home. A Hindu temple or shrine is considered an abode of deity and is not used for communal worship. There are kinds of Hindu clergy. Temple priests collect offerings and care for the temples and shrines. Domestic priests perform rites involving births, marriages, and deaths. Gurus are spiritual teachers. Sadhus are monks; most live in monasteries, but many live as wandering mendicants (beggars) (Chaudhuri, 304). B. Jesus Christ and Hinduism The original basic beliefs of Christianity are stated in the Apostles’ Creed. It affirms that Jesus Christ is the son of God and that God sent him to earth to live as a man and to suffer and die for the redemption of mankind. It also states the belief that Jesus, after being crucified, arose from the dead and ascended to heaven, from which he will return to earth to judge the living and the dead. Belief that Jesus was born of a virgin mother and that there is a life for man after death are essential parts of the creed (Kinsley 211-212). Man’s need for help from a higher power was stressed in religious earlier than Christianity. The concept of God as benevolent and forgiving—rather than as vengeful—is a main tenet of the Christian’s faith. Another Christian belief is that even though man has sinned seriously and separated himself from the love of God, he can be saved by repentance and accept Jesus Christ as the Lord and Savior. The necessity, and therefore the possibility, of communion between God and man is accepted by all Christians (Kinsley 211-212). C. Doctrinal Differences At first, the gospel of Jesus was spread by his disciples, followers who remembered his sayings. As Gentiles (non-Jews) as well as Jews entered the church, the influence of other minds began to be seen in the interpretations of doctrines. In this work, early Christian theologians borrowed ideas from the teachings of the Greek philosophers. At the same time, national traits and customs began to affect rituals and observances. Even within each year of the three great divisions of the Christian church—Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox— there are variations of practice. This is particularly true of the Protestants. The sacrament of baptism provides an example. Baptists hold that the convert must be completely immersed in water; Methodists believe that sprinkling water on head is sufficient. Most denominations baptize infants, but some insists that the individual be old enough to understand the meaning of the sacrament (Wilkins 144). There are other differences. The Disciples of Christ and certain Protestant groups insist upon using the Bible alone as a source of guidance. The doctrine of the Trinity—the belief that God is three beings (the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) in one divine nature—is accepted as basic by most Christians, but is rejected by Unitarians and Universalists (Wilkins 144). III. Conclusion Religion is such a big help in building our faith on God as individuals. Hinduism is a religion where each believer believes on reincarnation. Its followers are hoping to live life again but depending on how they live their lives at present. Though Hinduism has no founder yet believers tend to have strong faith and continuously believe and follow its structured beliefs. On the other hand, for the Christian Church, its faith is built on the Trinity which is the Father, Son and the Holy Spirit and Christians believe that these three personas are one. Reference: 1. Chaudhuri, N. C. Hinduism: a Religion to Live By (Oxford University, 2003). 2. Kinsley, D. Hinduism: a Cultural Perspective (Prentice-Hall, 2002). 3. Wilkins, W. J. Modern Hinduism: an Account of the religion and Life of the Hindus, 5th edition (Humanities Press, 2005).

Friday, August 30, 2019

How Human Influence Heredity In Mice Essay

Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular traits. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is sometimes done by a professional breeder. Breaded animals are known as breeds, while breaded plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars. The cross of animal’s results in what is called a cross breed, and crossbred plants are called hybrids. A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques, generally known as recombinant DNA technology, use DNA molecules from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. The difference between selective breeding and genetically modified organisms is with selective breeding the animals are bred for certain re asons for their fur or eye color also they do it naturally with a professional breeder. But when you have genetically modified organisms they use technology to breed the animals or plants. From the reports I researched I have found out that mice originated in India and Southeast Asia. Many theories explain that Mice appeared on the earth 65 million years ago when dinosaurs still existed. The common ancestor to mice and humans was an inconspicuous rodent-like mammal that scurried along the surface of the earth. It had to be inconspicuous because the earth was ruled by enormous dinosaurs, many of whom would have eaten any small mammal that could be caught. It has been predicted that the existence of mice resulted in the formation of a thick cloud of dust that, lead to a scenario like a nuclear winter with the disappearance of all green life, and with that, all large animals that depended either directly on plants for survival or indirectly on the animals that ate the plants would die. At least a small number of our rodent-like ancestors were able to survive these long sunless winter‘s because of their small size which allowed them to get by eating seeds alone. When the sun finally returned, the seeds scattered on the ground sprung to life and the world became an extremely fertile place. In the absence of competition from the dinosaurs, the mice were able to become the dominant large animal group, and they created numerous species. Since there are such a wide variety of mice they use them for all sorts of things. Mice are sometimes breaded as laboratory mice so that they can be used for experiments. They use mice and not dogs to test out medicine for humans because like I stated earlier the similarities of mice and humans are so close that when you test the medicine on the mouse you know that if you tested the medicine on a human that they would have the same reaction. That’s why 65 million years ago the genes from a mouse mixed with genes from a human and created a rodent like mammal to roam the earth. Outdoor mice provide an essential food source for owls, hawks and other predatory birds and animals. They may also be important consumers of weeds and insects. Indoor mice are not beneficial indoors, but if there are cockroaches or other insects in infected buildings, mice are probably eating them. Eliminating mice may result in a rise in the building’s visible population of insect pests.The only disadvantages of mice are that the indoor mice are usually intruders to a family’s garage or dark closet. This results in the poisoning or planning of mice traps that will kill the mice instantly. Some environmental concerns of selective breeding mice are the breeding could cause genetic problems which would make it easier for mice to get sick. With every type of selective breeding (which consists of linebreeding, outcrossing, and inbreeding) there are always safety concerns. If you breed them wrong the mother or the baby could die or get a genetic disease which could stop them from hearing, seeing, or walking. Selective breeding appears to violate mice’s rights, because selective breeding involves manipulating mice for human’s ends as if the animals were nothing more than human property, rather than treating the animals as being value in themselves. Mice are worth more than a failed laboratory experiment in a dark dungeon they are magnificent creatures that deserve sunlight, food, water, shelter, and most importantly love.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Hubris in Oedipus Essay

Oedipus the King is considered one of the greatest classical tragedies ever written. When Sophocles wrote this great play, he followed the concept of tragedy which dictated that the tragic hero should embody a tragic flaw in his character which acts as a motivation for the character’s eventual downfall. In Oedipus the King, the tragic flaw of the play’s hero, Oedipus, is centered on the concept of hubris, or excessive and destructive pride. Oedipus, through his pride, ultimately experiences the worst tragedies that can befall an individual; however, if the events of the play are examined closely, each of the tragic events can in some way be connected to Oedipus’ pride. One key example (in the myth of Oedipus which provided background for the play) is when Oedipus unknowingly murders his own father. Despite being warned by the oracle that he was destined to â€Å"shed with his own hand† his father’s blood, Oedipus quarrels with Laius on the road to Thebes over whose wagon had the right-of-way and his ultimate anger fueled by hubris led Oedipus to unwittingly murder his own father. After solving the Sphinx’s riddle and unknowingly marrying his own mother, Oedipus, as King, must face a plague which is threatening Thebes. The plague was sent as a form of revenge by the gods because of Laius’s murder. To help him find out the reason behind the plague, Oedipus consults a prophet named Tiresias, who is blind. When the prophet warns Oedipus to stop seeking the true murderer of Laius, Oedipus’s pride leads him to suspect Tiresias of treachery and dishonesty. Even though Oedipus has been warned all along about hsi destiny, he continues to try to control fate and therefore becomes further and further entangled in tragedy. It is his excessive pride that drives him to refuse to listen to the wisdom of those around him, even prophets. Eventually, Oedipus says during the play that he is superior to the gods, and this is a blatant expression of his hubris:â€Å"You pray to the gods? Let me grant your prayers† (Oedipus, 254). By saying this, it is clear that Oedipus considers himself even a greater power as king than the god themselves. A central part of the impact of Oedipus’s hubris is the dramatic irony which takes place in the play. The irony of Oedipus not knowing that he has murdered his own father and married his own mother and the irony that he is in fact the one responsible for the plague on Thebes and that his desire to rid the land of Laius’s murderer would lead to himself are all possible because of Oedipus’s extreme pride. He is oblivious to the possibility that the oracle’s predictions or the words of the blind prophet could indicate anything other than the elevation of his own glory and strength that his eventual tragic fall actually begins simultaneously with his rise to kingship and power, with the audience seeing the irony. The reason that Sophocles created such an ironic level of expression for the extreme hubris of Oedipus was to demonstrate to his audience that a great tragedy is always created by the inner-flaw or weakness of its main character. The Greeks regarded pride or hubris as one of the most common and dangerous of personal flaws and this play demonstrated for them and also for modern audiences the impact of excessive pride when carried to extreme levels of power and influence, although the lessons learned in the play are also applicable to common people in their everyday lives. By using irony, exaggeration, and an epic scale of symbols, Sophocles was able to present his audience with a frightening portrayal of the negative impacts of hubris or excessive pride.

Homicides are most often committed with guns Essay

Homicides are most often committed with guns - Essay Example It was established that the person had chosen the handgun to wield power, because of its availability and ease of access. Although, most of the firearms owned by the people are long guns, all the same, most homicides are committed with handguns, rather than long guns. Handguns are the most preferred weapons in homicides and homicide and handgun ownership are associated with each other. A study conducted in Seattle and Vancouver revealed that handguns are frequently used in homicides. These two cities have similar demographic characteristics, but the number of handguns owned in Seattle, is much higher than that in Vancouver. Not surprisingly, the chances of being killed are five times more in Seattle than in Vancouver. Per se, owning a handgun is very common in the US (Iadicola & Shupe, 2003. Pp. 106 – 107). Handgun ownership has been on the increase, since 1960. The reasons for this trend had been identified as rapid urbanization, increase in new households and wealth. People who already owned guns had purchased even more guns. In addition, several people had chosen to own guns in response to the growing crime in the society. In many incidents, people who previously did not have guns had purchased guns to feel secure from crime. Thus, a higher number of handguns were purchased for self – defense reasons. Some argue that there is a positive association between gun ownership and crime rates. Interestingly, the crime rates had a greater influence on the increase in gun ownership, whereas the latter had not influenced the former in any way (Kleck, 1991). On the other hand, long guns are owned for recreational purposes by most of their owners. They are seldom used in crimes. Handgun ownership has increased rapidly, and this has brought about an increase in crime rate. The increase in such ownership was found to be less among the public, who were nonviolent and non-criminals. Moreover, criminals and violent people were unreported and unrepresented in surveys

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

A rose for Emily research paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

A rose for Emily research paper - Essay Example The readers were told that Emily bought arsenic and that a strange odor appeared around the house for a few weeks and then disappeared. During the years Miss Emily isolated herself from the society in town and only after she dead did they discovered in a locked room the decomposed body of her alleged fiancà ©. The grey hair they found signified that Miss Emily had been laying near the dead body of her partner for years. Barnet et al. (1997) consider that we live in a world filled with symbolism. Symbols do not have a clear meaning and possesÃ'  a deep spiritual structure embedded in society and culture. Meanings intermingle with expressions and create ambiguities. Symbols are fragmented and present different pictures, evoke different senses and stand for different situations (Barnet et al). Every moment is written or spoken sign and in order to grasp its meaning we have to decode its symbols. The same is with stories and literature. They stand for past, present and future experiences which we have to carefully decipher. Many different interpretations can be represented in analyzing the social, economic and historical contexts of Faulkner’s short story. Fetterly (1999) justifies Faulkner’s use of the grotesque to describe his story. She proposes that one looks at the story from a feminist perspective. Then â€Å"one notices that the grotesque aspects of the story are a result of its violation of the expectations generated by the conventions of sexual politics (Fetterly 50).† Fetterly (1999) continues that the end shocks not only by the suggestion of necrophilia, but also by the fact that a woman is capable of committing a murder of a men. This story is not about the conflict between the old and the new, the change of social order, or the competition between the South and the North. This is a story of the sexual conflict below the surface (Fetterly). The locked rook found after Emily’s death is a mirror image of the world that

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Effects of the media, tv advertising and commercials to individuals, Essay

Effects of the media, tv advertising and commercials to individuals, families and to society - Essay Example All advertised images of men and women are full of perfectly shaped bodies, drooled over by the lesser fortunate mortals. The average viewer watches 400 to 600 advertisements every day and this enormous amount of messaging can create a permanent mindset. Fatty foods are shown with awfully thin bodies triggering off a confused and strange eating tendency among the really younger sets. Acceptance of violence, almost expecting it, is another tendency that is unhappily growing among viewers. Children are becoming more and more bloodthirsty. Recent media story about a TV game where the little viewer had to blow up President Kennedy's head was an ultimate example of the horrifying intellectual bankruptcy. Children know all names in the TV game world, but cannot recognize the next-door kid, as they hardly play in the open. Perhaps a positive and encouraging, almost ethical approach is necessary for TV to make the right impact on viewers. Same goes for the beauty and beauty products. Beauty has been given so much importance that there is hardly any scope for mental development or intellectual improvement. One cannot find a single advertisement where it is told that mental enhancement or intellectual growth is necessary for a perfect human being. As commercials glorify trivia, the younger generation is getting hooked into it like being addicted to drugs, hoping to achieve unrealistic standards of body measurement and beauty. "This constant exposure to female-oriented advertisements may influence girls to become self-conscious about their bodies and to obsess over their physical appearance as a measure of their worth." Some people even... This "Effects of the media, tv advertising and commercials to individuals, families and to society" essay outlines the impact of the advertisement on consumers behavior and people overall. Some people even believe that advertisers tamper with the imaged figures, so that they could look almost impossibly true, only to create more desire among the viewers, which is perhaps probable. Reports from psychiatrists and psychologists show very bleak picture of their effects on people. Girls are known to complain that very thin models made them feel insecure and unhappy. Constant self-comparison with the dizzy heights of perfection is making viewers feel perpetually inadequate, mainly because advertisers do not allow viewers to forget the images. They force it upon them continuously till they become dissatisfied psychological wrecks. Horror of getting fat is driving the TV hooked into distraction. Stringent dieting can end in serious eating disorders that could be long lasting. Considerable nu mber of younger people has started smoking to control the healthy hunger. Males spend most of their time in the gyms trying to look more muscular. This pursuit sometimes ends up in taking unprescribed drugs and steroids, as men tend to develop pathological shame about their normal bodies. Average American girl is said to be watching 5000 hours of television and 80,000 ads even before she starts the kindergarten. Before their self esteem starts taking shape, it is already shaken with the bombardment of TV commercials.

Monday, August 26, 2019

The Ineffectiveness of Gun Control Research Paper

The Ineffectiveness of Gun Control - Research Paper Example The longevity of guns, the prevalence of illegal caches of weapons and the lack of respect that criminals have for the law all contribute to gun control as a misguided and ineffective concept that has no effect on violent crime within the United States. Despite arguments to the contrary, gun control does not reduce the amount of violent crime in the United States. Throughout the United States, there are thousands of different gun control laws, which vary not only in the restrictions that they create, but also in how effectively they are enforced. Some laws act to restrict who can purchase guns, by creating purchasing permits, or requiring gun registration, others include safety training before purchase or background checks when a sale is occurring (Moorhouse and Wanner 104). Stories of the lack of logic in current gun control laws abound. A classic example of this is a man who keeps a gun in his house for his own protection, despite the fact that it is illegal. An intruder breaks into the man’s house, and makes a rush at the man, who then shoots the intruder. In many states in America, the man would face criminal charges, and this has happened many times (Wilson 1). This is one of the key arguments against gun control; it punishes the everyday citizens, while not effectively restricting criminals. After all, if a person is not afraid to break the law to rob a house, they are unlikely to be concerned about having an illegal gun. Thus, gun control does not result in less guns in the hands of criminals. The debate on gun control has spurred significant controversy about whether gun control laws are an effective method of reducing crime. Studies of gun control in the United States have mixed results.... Studies of gun control in the United States have mixed results. Most studies have concluded that gun control in the United States does not result in the reduction in violent crime (Moorhouse and Wanner 106). Despite the development of gun control laws, the amount of firearms owned privately has continued to steadily rise, but this has not been matched by the prevalence of violent crimes. Rates of violent crime in the United States have varied considerably (Jacobs 13). This suggests that ownership of guns has no effect on the rate of violent crime, implying that the logic behind gun control laws is fundamentally flawed. Perhaps the strongest piece of evidence against gun control is a report issued by the National Academy of Sciences. The report was 328 pages long, and contained information from close to 400 different sources as well as its own study. The study found that there was no evidence that gun control had any effect on reducing the amount of violent crime that occurs. Another study found that measures such as background checks for people purchasing guns are ineffective, as close to 80% percent of guns owned by criminals were purchased illegally (WND). There is no doubt that the United States has a serious problem with violent crime. Despite the comparatively low levels of crime in recent years, the United States still has more violent crime than other countries in the Western hemisphere, not only in terms of crimes committed with guns, but also for other types of violent crime. In fact, more than 90% of violent crimes that occur within the United States do not involve the use of any weapon (Jacobs 8-10). This suggests that gun control is an innately flawed concept because relies on the assumed relationship between the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Compare the heroes Gilgamesh and Rama Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Compare the heroes Gilgamesh and Rama - Essay Example First, Gilgamesh is a sacred king in the ancient Babylonian kingdom who greatly possesses the trait of â€Å"two-thirds divine† (Mitchell 10). By virtue of his god-like character, the Babylonian people fear and follow the absolute monarchy practiced by Gilgamesh, the demigod of the bygone civilization. Like Gilgamesh, Rama is a divine king in the age-old India who greatly ruled his devoted subjects with â€Å"universal or social conscience† (qtd. in Leeming, Madden, and Marlan 803). Second, Gilgamesh and Rama have sameness with respect to their journeys in finding their missions in life and/or love. On the one hand, Gilgamesh travels to varied and tortuous places in order to find the person who â€Å"can tell him how to escape death† (Mitchell 1). After his friend’s death, Gilgamesh journeys into the terra incognita which he, consequently, â€Å"suffered all and accomplished all† (qtd. in Mitchell 9). On the other hand, Rama travels to the land of h is mortal enemy in order to rescue his beloved Sita. On this way, Rama constantly remembers in the need to avoid the â€Å"sense enemies’ lust, ire and greed† (Das 69). And third, both epic heroes greatly share tragedy (Gupta 23). The tragedy of Gilgamesh lies in his failure to attain immortality while Rama’s tragedy lies in the unfaithfulness of his beloved. Both stories of Gilgamesh and Rama are, by and large, shaped by their cultures and societies.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Management and Leadership Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Management and Leadership - Case Study Example The company’s mission is to be the partner of choice for customers, employees, and business partners like investors (The Arab Human Development Report 112). They also have a mission to give to its customer’s superior technologies, quality products, and good services. They also focus on growth of the company and the addition of new values. The goals of the company include; providing good returns and growth to the investors input, satisfying every customer’s needs, building profitable relationships with partners and creation of favorable environments to the employees so that they can reach their goals (The Arab Human Development Report 29). Considering the company’s corporate strategy, the company, is set to have integrity in its operations, good communication channels in the organization and to other organizations, effective teamwork for better productivity of the business, accountability in each of the operations it deals in and aims at excellence in its o perations. From the report, it is evident that Lubna Olayan is a good leader to the company and has good management skills. She is seen to be recognized in many other different institutions for her quality management. This is due to her principles and organized corporate strategies (The Arab Human Development Report 122). Discussion Considering Blanchard’s situational leadership model description, Lubna Olayan’s leadership is using the delegating style (Maude 96). This is seen from what she says she believes in. She believes that the most difficult work should be given to the most competent person. This shows that she believes in delegating work to people provided she has confidence that the person will manage to deliver a quality job. This is also evident from what she said when she was asked about taking credit in the achievements they have had as a company (Maude 123). She said that she is humbled with what she has gained as a manager; she focuses on what she will a chieve tomorrow and so sets the plans for delegating duties. The success of a business depends on the overall efforts of each employee. For the Olayan financing company to continue growing and achieving its goals, Lubna Olayan will need to look for means of empowering his employees and managers so that the business will continue to succeed. Empowering the employees and managers, at the firm, will help increase employee trust and loyalty in the business. This is results from the idea that employees will know that the decisions they make will affect the company directly hence will look for means of making the best decisions. This will be healthy for the company as a whole (Maude 115). The other factor that will necessitate the empowerment of the managers and the employees at the firm is because Olayan is a person with a tight schedule, and cannot be available at all times to make decisions for the company (The Arab Human Development Report 61). Empowering employees and managers will e nsure that decisions can be made, even if, the overall leader is not at the business premises. This ensures all the company’s activities continue smoothly whenever Olayan is on errands. Empowering the employees also promotes innovation and creativity at the work place. This can help to develop new and better ways of solving situations. It can also be a channel of evaluating which employee is a better leader.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Roosevelt's New Deal in American Government History Research Paper

Roosevelt's New Deal in American Government History - Research Paper Example This is all part of a debate that was being had during the dawn of the American republic between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. As Hamilton once said, â€Å"It's not tyranny we desire; its a just, limited, federal government.† The idea had support, but also had a lot of opposition. Many Americans felt that the creation of federal parties would make the U.S. like the U.K. which they hated (Singleton, 89). Thomas Jefferson once wrote, â€Å"The two enemies of the people are criminals and government, so let us tie the second down with the chains of the Constitution so the second will not become the legalized version of the first.† He did not want federal parties taking power and using it to create a strong central government. Roosevelt's response to the Depression ignored both men but was inclined towards Hamilton's view. He used the federal government to drastically change the country forever. He changed labour law, created social security, and put the government into the very heart of the economy. The government became the back-stop for economic problems, and taxpayers were on the hook for failures in the private sector. This greatly increased the power of government and the power of the presidency. As the historian Amity Shlaes has written, Roosevelt's actions actually prolonged the Depression (Shlaes, 21). It was not until the Second World War revved up the American economy, that things got back to normal. At the time supporters felt it was necessary.  

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Existentialism Essay Essay Example for Free

Existentialism Essay Essay Ever wonder why we have the term â€Å"free will† or where it originated? People believe that an individual can discover themselves as a person and choose how to live by the decisions they make; well this is where the word existentialism comes into play. Existentialism has been around since the early nineteenth century with Soren Kierkegaard’s philosophical and theological writings which, in the twentieth century, would be recognized as existentialism. The term was first coined by Gabriel Marcel, the French philosopher and later adopted by Jean-Paul Sartre, Friedrich Nietzsche and other philosophers for whom human existence were key philosophical topics; but Kierkegaard is known as the â€Å"Father of Existentialism†. Existentialism proposes that man is full of anxiety and despair with no meaning in his life, simply existing, until he made a decisive choice about the future. That is the way to achieve dignity as a human being. Existentialists felt that adopting a social or political cause was one way of giving purpose to life. Since then, existentialism has been used by writers such as Hamlet, Voltaire, Henry David Thoreau, in Buddha’s teachings, and more. Throughout the years, existentialism has been viewed from various lenses to express different ideas, emotions, as well as to expand the thought process of readers, movie go’ers, and theater lovers everywhere and has been excessively used in Kurt Vonnegut’s anti-war novel Slaughterhouse Five, Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot, and in the movie Inception. Existentialism is a concept that became popular during the Second World War in France, and just after it. French playwrights have often used the stage to express their views about anything going on in the world. There were hidden meanings that were common throughout the period so that plays would be able to pass without being banned or censored. One who wrote best-selling novels, plays and widely read journalism as well as theoretical texts during this period was Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre had been imprisoned in Germany in 1940 but managed to escape and become one of the leaders of the Existential movement in France. Sartre dealt with existentialist themes in his 1938 novel Nausea and the short stories in his 1939 collection The Wall, and had published his treatise on existentialism, Being and Nothingness in 1943, but it was in the two years following the liberation of Paris from the German occupying forces that he and his close associate became internationally famous as the leading figures of a movement known as existentialism. A major theme throughout his writings was freedom and responsibility. One other extremely popular writer and playwright during the same time as Sartre, as well as a close friend, was Albert Camus. In a short amount of time, Camus and Sartre became the leading public intellectuals of post-war France achieving, by the end of 1945, a fame that reached across all audiences. (Existential Primer: Albert Camus) Camus rejected the existentialist label and considered his works to be concerned with facing the absurd. In the Titular book, Camus uses the analogy of the Greek myth of Sisyphus to demonstrate the futility of existence. In the myth, Sisyphus is condemned for eternity by the gods to roll a rock up a hill; when he reaches the summit, the rock will roll to the bottom again. Camus believes that this existence is pointless yet Sisyphus ultimately finds meaning and purpose in his task, simply by continually applying himself to it. For Camus, this related heavily to everyday life, and he saw Sisyphus an absurd hero, with a pointless existence. Camus felt that it was necessary to wonder what the meaning of life was and that the human being longed for some sense of clarity in the world, since if the world were clear, art would not exist. (Existential Primer: Albert Camus) The Myth of Sisyphus became a prototype for existentialism in the theatre and eventually inspired Beckett to write Waiting for Godot. In Beckett’s Waiting for Godot, existentialism manifests itself in a few ways; the frustration of trying to understand the meaning in life, the continued repetition seen throughout the play, and the inability to act. What remains archetypal in Waiting for Godot, concerning the absurdist metaphor is the way in which each character relies on the other for comfort, support, and most of all, meaning. Vladimir and Estragon desperately need one another in order to avoid living a lonely and meaningless life. The two together functions as a metaphor for survival, like the characters that proceed and follow them, they feel compelled to leave one another, but at the same time compelled to stay together. They consider parting, but, in the end, never actually part. Andrew Kennedy explains these rituals of parting saying, each is like a rehearsed ceremony, acted out to lessen the distance between time present and the ending of the relationship, which is both dreaded and desired(57). Therefore, Vladimir and Estragons inability to leave each other is just another example of the uncertainty and frustration they feel as they wait for an explanation of their existence. One of the most prevalent themes in Waiting for Godot is Estragon and Vladimir’s inability to act. When Estragon says â€Å"Let’s go†, Vladimir says â€Å"We can’t†¦ We’re waiting for Godot† (page 7). They are not even sure that Godot will come, or that they are waiting at the right place. Even if he doesn’t come, they plan to wait indefinitely. Even if he doesn’t come, they plan to wait indefinitely. After witnessing Pozzo’s cruelty to Lucky, Vladimir and Estragon are outraged. Yet they are still unable to do anything to improve Lucky’s situation. Pozzo lets Estragon and Vladimir know that they do not have control over their immediate future or even their distant future. When talking about the mysterious twilight, Estragon and Vladimir relate to waiting for Godot. So long as they know what to expect, waiting is their only course of action. Since Estragon and Vladimir can never make a decisive choice about what they want to do or about their future, their life seems to have no meaning.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Citizen Kane Essay Example for Free

Citizen Kane Essay The film Citizen Kane (1941), directed and written by Orson Welles and Herman Mankiewicz, is an American film drama that use various film techniques to illustrate themes, attitudes, and the development of a story. Welles use of camera angles, lighting, movement, symbolism and expression allow the audience to comprehend and understand the themes such as power and exploitation that are present in this movie along with many other themes that pertain to the life of the main character, Charles Foster Kane. Many of the filming techniques that are used in this film illustrate Kane and his feelings and transitions through and about his life. Citizen Kane is a film that demonstrates the importance of how simple scene techniques can help develop a story. After viewing the film, the audience comes to understand that the main theme of the movie is centered around the importance of childhood. Throughout the movie, symbolism is used to reinforce the theme. Thompson, the reporter, attempts to figure out the meaning of the word â€Å"rosebud†, Kanes last words before passing away. Kanes life seems to be a mystery to some people, and the word â€Å"rosebud† is that missing piece to Kanes life. Thompson never figures out what â€Å"rosebud† means, but at the end of the movie we see the word â€Å"rosebud† on the sled that was thrown into the fire. At this point the audience understands that rosebud is indeed symbolic of his childhood and the missing piece of his life. Earlier in the movie, Kane is outside playing with that same sled while his parents are discussing a plan to send him away. â€Å"Rosebud† can now be connected to the snow globe which represents his childhood in Colorado. Thomson said that â⠂¬Å"rosebud† was a missing piece in a jigsaw puzzle. He is illustrating that Kane always felt that he lost his childhood and himself. All he had to show for it was that sled and the snow globe. Further importance on the theme of his childhood is illustrated through lighting when Thomson the reporter investigates Tatcher to get a better understanding of Kanes childhood. When he enters the room there is a very distinct, glowing light that is angled in such away that it focuses on a book containing information about Kanes childhood. Right away, we see the importance of Kanes childhood in the developing plot. To further emphasize this importance, when Thomson opens the book, the audience notices the very distinct contrast between the bright light on the book and the dark area surrounding the book. Throughout the movie, the director is hinting to the audience that his childhood is symbolic of something very important which just might be the answer to the question, â€Å" What/who is Rosebud?† By now the audience understands that that Kane was unable to have a normal childhood due to a lack of say and power. This is illustrated using a depth and focus effect. In the early parts of the film there is a scene in which Kane is outside playing while his parents and banker are negotiating his fate. The actors are ordered in such a way that the mother is always in front, followed by the banker, Kanes father, and then Kane. Kanes mother seems to have the power due to her position in this scene. It is important to notice that although Kane is in the far depths, he is still in focus, but with limited power. As we transition through the movie, Kane gains power and is in the front of this scene but there is always depth and focus in the shot to illustrate a hierarchy of power. Another theme in the movie that is reinforced by this technique of depth focusing is relationships. As Kane develops through the movie, the audience recognizes that he is losing his power and his weakness leads to broken relationships. When he takes control of the Inquirer, he is constantly surrounded by people and they are not physically distant from him, but as his status on the hierarchical system dwindles down, he begins to distance himself from others in scenes. When Kane fires Leland, we see a great deal of depth and distance between the two but both remain in focus. In this same scene Bernstein is standing in the doorway at a distance away from Kane but he has no significance. The way the actors are positioned illustrate how Kane is developing as person and with other people around him. When Kane gets taken away by Tatcher at a very young age, his life is transitioning into one of power and corruption. When his employees and partners welcome him for the first time at the Inquirer, all the shots are low angle shots. The angle also makes it seem as though Kane is significantly larger than everyone else in the subsequent scenes. It is as though the audience is looking up to him just as his employees are, illustrating the theme of power that Kane now holds. Exploitation is a theme that begins to develop after Kane has taken control of the Inquirer. His need for power continues to grow and he becomes more and more corrupt. Not only is there corruption within his company, but he comes to exploit other peoples thoughts and ideas. As Kane obtains more power and greed, he gets the idea to run for governor, but in the process he gets exploited in regards to his developing relationship with Susan. This is where the movie transitions from power to weakness. Up until this point there has been many low-angle shots to illustrate Kanes growing power. When Kane loses the election, the film moves transitions into high-angle shots. Prior to anyone even saying that the election was over, the scene setting clearly illustrates that the election was lost. Even though the office looks like it is a mess, it is very empty. No campaign crew, no feeling. The shot then moves to Kane. During this scene Kane speaks with two different people but his face is down and hidden from the audience. The camera is constantly at a low angle illustrating Kanes diminishing power. Furthermore, this is the first scene with Kane in which there is limiting lighting in the room, which reinforces the concept of an empty feeling. As mentioned before, the director uses deep focused shots to illustrate a hierarchy of power. Throughout the movie, deep focused shots are also used to put significance on a specific actor. In the deep focused shots, actors are usually separated by long distances, like in the scene where Kane is talking to Susan across a long corridor with Thompson as the interviewer. When either Kane or Susan speak, the camera shot is always focused in front of them to draw attention to what they are saying. Another technique used to put focus on Kane throughout the movie is by drawing in on Kane by passing through and object or person through a continuous shot. This filming technique is used in the first scene of the movie. The scene begins with the audience closing in on a â€Å"No Trespassing† sign, and then passes through the sign to reveal a house with light coming from one window. This might not be a significant amount of light, but the lighting does illustrate the importance of what lies beyond those windows. The scene continues through a garden, over fences, etc. but the whole time the lighted window stays in the same position, continuously bringing a attention to its significance. Of course as the scene continues it is that of Kane passing away and revealing the mystery which follows throughout the film. The director attempts to always keep the attention on Kane even when it seems as though he is fading out of the discussion. The audience can always find a relationship between the characters of a story/film and the main themes. In the film Citizen Kane, the relationship between the characters and important themes are illustrated by filming techniques that range from camera angles to symbolism. Throughout the movie symbolism played an important role in determining the main theme and what â€Å"rosebud† meant. Kanes development as a person and place in society was illustrated through camera angles, lighting, and depth. These techniques not only assists the audience in understanding Kane, but also understanding other characters and the relationship Kane had with them.

Challenges And Constraints Of Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

Challenges And Constraints Of Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay The biggest challenge that Solar Energy faces today is the alternative conventional energy sources that are cheaper in terms of consumption measures (Rupees per KWh).Electricity generated from Solar Energy is costlier compared to that produced from coal-fired power plants. Government and enterprises are working on producing cheaper solar cells to reduce cost of usage. Although the price of Solar Photovoltaic technology has decreased in the last years, it is still not a feasible solution for large scale power generation purposes. In India, the average cost of Photovoltaic modules is around Rs. 2 lc/KWh and the cost of electricity generation of electricity from Solar Photovoltaic and Solar thermal route is in the range of Rs. 12 -20 per kWh and Rs. 10 15 per kWh respectively. The electricity produced this way is four-five times costlier from that produced from conventional sources. Advancement in technology is required to reduce this gap. The manufacturing process needs to be more cost- effective since the Solar Photovoltaic conversion of electricity is a high-technology process demanding high level of skills and expertise. Companies are allocating special funds for research and development in the industry to encourage innovations to improve the process. Since the field is a relatively new one with less knowledge in the field, new companies face challenges in coping up with the existing players in the field. India is suitably located to receive sufficient sunlight all round the year. However there are a few places which do not receive enough solar energy throughout the year, which affects the cost of production. Areas which receive huge amounts of rainfall and are clouded for most parts of the year, automatically get ruled out as prospective sites for Solar Energy generation. Another major challenge that solar energy faces is storage of the generated power. Electricity from Photovolatic cells cannot be generated during the night and during cloudy days and hence suitable measures have to be adopted to store the energy produced during the other times of the day. Another major disadvantage is that access on a short term basis cannot be predicted. Since India is located near to the equator the incoming radiation fluctuate a little every year, it is however difficult to predict the incoming radiations on a day to day basis. Apart of this there are seasonal variations which cause the supply and demand to grow out of phase. It is thus imperative that Solar Energy cannot be relied upon as the only source of electricity for potential uses like space heating, till proper storage measures are invented. It is also difficult to store energy since it also increases the cost of production and installation. Only once this issue gets resolved can solar energy actually com pete with other existent sources of energy. ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS Due to absence of proper government regulation ,local government and individuals are skeptical about the effect that setting up of big solar power plants will have on the individuals and environment. A large scale solar power plant typically requires approximately one square kilometer for every 20-60MW generated. RAW MATERIAL AND WASTE PRODUCTS Some of the materials ( like Cadmium) used for producing Solar PV cells are hazardous and other raw materials like plastics used for the packaging of the cells are non-biodegradable, thereby impacting the environment. Although some of the waste generated during the manufacturing process is recyclable (silicon), not all other materials are recyclable and disposal of the same is a challenging process. AESTHETICS AND DESIGN Another barrier to wider adoption of solar cell and solar module products and systems among commercial and residential consumers is aesthetics and design. Consumers have resisted solar products for aesthetic reasons. Established solar products are heavy, rigid, fragile and non-modular. Solar cell and solar module manufacturers can improve aesthetics by developing products that can be more attractively integrated into building structures, and that are lighter, flexible and modular and hence more feasible. Growth in future and driving factors Concentrated Solar Vs Photovoltaic Solar Solar energy utilization technologies can be broadly classified into two categories as Concentrated Solar Technology Photovoltaic Solar Technology In Concentrated Solar Technology the solar energy converts heat liquids into steam, which is then used to drive turbines to produce electricity, heating and cooling purposes, providing hot water etc. In PV Solar, solar panels are used to produce electricity. The Concentrated Solar technology provides a good alternative to PV solar, one that is less expensive and more versatile. Benefits of concentrated solar technology are: It uses existing resources like generators, piping and mirrors. Due to which the production costs are much lower than PV solar In producing solar energy no hazardous materials are used. Thus it is free from production hassles that could arise due to future government laws or policies. It can also store the heat that is generated during the day, and use it at a later time when the electricity is needed. Storing heat is much more efficient than most forms of storing electricity, and does not require expensive equipment or large tracks of land. Due to the aforementioned benefits Concentrated Solar Technology is currently a more sought after method. But the potential for PV Solar Technology is higher and is being worked over across all countries. Government incentives Major percentage of the solar energy production has been backed by the government world over. Few of the government incentives in the following ways are: FIT (mainly in europe) Direct Subsidy on panels Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS, in US) ITC (Investment tax credits, in US) Some of the goals with respect to solar energy of different countries driven by government initiatives are: The  European Union  has linked goals to get 20% of its energy from clean sources by 2012. Chinas Renewable Energy Law aims to raise the total percentage of renewable energy used in the country to 15% by 2020. The U.S. Stimulus Bill of February of 2009 included $60 billion in loan guarantees for companies building solar and wind plants with the goal of doubling renewable energy production from 2009 to 2012. In June of 2008, Germany approved a law cutting its solar subsidies by 10%. Further, under the law subsidies will fall another 8%-10% each year for the next three years. The Spanish Government cut its solar subsidies by 30%. Renewable energy demand Shifts in renewable energy demand are a major driver for the solar market. Two major drivers of this shift are climate change  and  peak oil. Climate Change With more people than ever being aware of global warming and its potential effects, and fear of the repercussions of a carbon-based energy scheme is driving consumer demand for alternatives like solar. With increasing number of people being aware of global warming and its harmful effects, rising fear caused due to carbon based energy production, the demand for alternative energy resources are in demand. The number of awareness campaigns to promote the use of alternative resources has increased tremendously over the past few years and will continue to rise in the future. Wind and Solar energy are the first potential step taken into consideration. Peak Oil and Energy Independence The ever rising oil prices and the scarcity of finding the mines and oil reserves are a growing concern. It is predicted that the oil resources will dwindle to such an extent that the growth of any country will be a standstill if measures are not taken today to curtail the dependence. Furthermore, a large part of the world oil supply can be found in politically turbulent countries; with OPEC having dominant control over world oil supply (and, therefore, prices), many countries desire energy alternatives in order to break dependence on geopolitically unstable nations. Technology and Silicon Supply Silicon was previously used extensively by the semiconductor industry. But, with the advent of solar power and its rapid growth the demand for them has increased exponentially, resulting in an under-supply of silicon unable to meet the current demand. Thus the higher prices in silicon mean higher production costs for solar companies and lower margins. For a sustainable growth and control in costs of production in the future the demand-supply equilibrium must be in check. In recent years the technical advancements in the field of solar power has been rapid and tremendous. Everyone across the value chain, manufacturers and suppliers are working towards producing more solar energy out of the existing solar equipment. Advancements have included increasing cell energy efficiency, using thinner wafers, and increasing generating power in low-light (generation of energy even on a cloudy day). The advancement in two new manufacturing processes namely string-ribbon technology and thin-film technology, designed to drastically reduce the  silicon  required to make PV cells, could dramatically decrease the cost of new PV cells. The use of a new nanotechnology based approach using Tetrapod Quantum Dots (TQ-Dots) is being considered. It is an economical alternative to replace the silicon wafer based solar cells with flexible TQ-Dot solar cells and has the advantage of generating electricity from UV and infrared wavelengths allowing generation 24/7. Government Regulation As the solar industry continues to grow at 25% per annum, the government is faced with the challenge to regulate the industry to allow for equitable distribution of the industry benefits. The Union Ministry has set up a separate Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources later renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The government is trying hard to bring India to the number 1 level by introducing grid based incentives and providing concession at various levels of manufacturing and distribution in its recent budget 2010-11. Effect on the Environment: There is an ongoing debate on how Concentrated Solar Plants especially inare affecting the environment. There is a concern how the use of vast amounts of public land for Solar Energy development will affect local inhabitants. Local Government and Environmental bodies have raised concern for reliable regulatory measures to be setup to understand the affect on the operations of such large plants on the environment. It is expected that the government will frame certain special energy zones, where concentrated solar plants will be setup. Permitting: The permit fees to set up Solar Plants varies in different areas in the countries, which causes variations in the setup price causing a dilemma in the minds of prospective investors.The cost of Solar Installation in a city varies from Rs.15,000 to Rs. 50,000.Many countries that used to face such issues are now migrating to a uniform permit fees system to encourage investment in this field. Regulating Solar Energy Providers: As part of JNNSM, government has dedicated NTPC VidyutVyapar Nigam, for the purchase of Solar Energy by independent solar plants, the prices of which are fixed by the Central Regulatory Electricity Commission for a given period of time. The power distribution companies will purchase the power generated from these plants at the prices set by the regulator.They would also follow the below mentioned norms: CERC has announced tariff of Rs. 18.44 per unit for solar PV power and Rs. 13.45 per unit for solar thermal power for 25 years; Zero or concessional duty to be applied on import of some specific items; Zero Excise duty on manufacture of many solar energy devices within the country; NTPC VVN will purchase solar power for a period of 25 years at fixed tariff announced by CERC; CERC will review the costs every year and fix tariff accordingly for new projects. Union Budget 2010-11: Government has announced an allocation of $10bn for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission. The budget also provides incentives to private solar companies by reducing customs duty on solar panel by 5% and exempting excise duty on photovoltaic panels.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Sonia and Raskolnikov in Dostoevskys Crime and Punishment :: Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment

Sonia and Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment    Sonia and Raskolnikov are two characters that interact with each other in the novel, Crime and Punishment. They interact on multiple levels, sharing several likenesses. Both of these characters are at-times self-sacrificing, both are struggling for meaning in a dreary existence, and both are generally unhappy people, but brighten and seem to enjoy each other's presence--even when Raskolnikov is berating her religion. What is self-sacrifice, for which these characters and so many people around the world engage in? It is a desire to help those around us more than we wish to help ourselves. This is not normal human state, although it can be brought about easily by societal pressures, and sometimes even political societies can compel this attitude. Sonia practices a form of altruism for her family however. She acquires a yellow card and takes her body off to the moral slaughter by sacrificing it to others for money--money that will go to her starving, poor family. Though not his predomin ant state of mind or action, Raskolnikov does have temporal tendencies towards self-sacrifice. It seems that part of his state of mind when considering the murder of the pawnbroker is that he will be helping society as a whole--definitely a motive that comes from outside the self. Sonia and Raskolnikov share many characteristics that make them an interesting encounter for each other. A tendency to self-sacrifice for one, and a life of it for another, provides for an amalgam of psychological likenesses which help the characters relate.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Due in part to their self-sacrificing lives, both characters are also trying to search for meaning in the dreary existence which they are subjected to. Sonia finds this meaning in the Bible, in a belief in God. Raskolnikov writes a theory. He finds solace in thinking that he himself is a god-like creature, he believes he is extraordinary. A belief in being a subject of the Divine and thinking that there are two divisions of men is extremely close. Both of these characters also have their meaning attacked. Porfiry Petrovich attacks and picks for holes in the theory of Raskolnikov. Perhaps as a reaction to this, Raskolnikov picks holes in the support for meaning in Sonia's life--God, the Bible, and her faith. The final glues that continually attracts these two characters is the fact that all their morbid similarities bring them together so that they actually enjoy each other's presence.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2004 Essay -- Investment Investor Sarbanes Oxley

Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2004 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was signed into law on July 30, 2002 by President Bush. The new law came after major corporate scandals involving Enron, Arthur Anderson, WorldCom. Its goals are to protect investors by improving accuracy of and reliability of corporate disclosures and to restore investor confidence. The law is considered the most important change in securities and corporate law since the New Deal. The act is named after Senator Paul Sarbanes of Maryland and Representative Michael Oxley of Ohio (Wikipedia Online).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sarbanes-Oxley consisted of 11 different titles or sections. Title I is Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. It created a five member panel known as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, overseen and appointed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (Sarbanes-Oxley). The Board is to consist of two CPAs and three people that are not CPAs, but the chairman must be a CPA. The Board is to provide oversight of auditing of public companies while establishing auditing, quality control, independence, ethical standards (Arens 32-33). Public accounting firms that work on audits must register with the Board and pay a fee. Title I also included new auditing rules. Auditors must now retain paper work for seven years, have a second partner review and approval of audit reports, evaluate whether internal controls accurately show transactions as well as sales of assets, and describe any weaknesses or noncompliant internal controls. Public accou nting firms that issue auditing reports for more than 100 companies are to be inspected every year. Accounting firms that issue audit reports for less than 100 companies must be inspected very three years. The Board can discipline or sanction accounting firms for what it deems to be negligent conduct (Conference of State Bankers Online).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Title II of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is Auditor Independence. It creates new rules that auditors must abide by in order to keep their objectivity and accuracy. Auditors are now banned from performing most non-audit related services like bookkeeping, actuary services, and management consulting. An auditor may no longer be the lead auditor of a firm for more than five consecutive years. Auditors are now required to report all significant accounting policies and practices used in the audit, any different trea... ... GE has said that new compliance costs are about $30 million. AIG has said that Sarbanes-Oxley is costing the company $300 million. Many European companies have also complained because they are forced to comply because they are on American stock exchanges. Surveys have also found that many companies are even thinking about going private to avoid compliance Sarbanes-Oxley (Bartlett 1-3). Works Cited Arens, Alvin, Randal Elder and Mark Beasley. Auditing and Assurance Services: An Integrated Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. Bartlett, Bruce. â€Å"The Crimes of Sarbanes-Oxley.† National Review 25 May 2004.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Conference of State Bankers Online. Executive Summary of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. 10 February 2005. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. 107 Cong., 2nd sess. 2004.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ bills&docid=f:h3763enr.tst.pdf. Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Wikipedia Online. Oxley_Act.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

One Time Offer: Sell your Soul, Receive Eternal Life: Note: Do as I do, or Be Punished :: essays research papers

â€Å"Believe nothing just because a so-called wise person said it. Believe nothing just because a belief is generally held. Believe nothing just because it is said in ancient books. Believe nothing just because it is said to be of divine origin. Believe nothing just because someone else believes it. Believe only what you yourself test and judge to be true.† (Buddha)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  We were not given the gift of life to adhere to other’s dreams, we were not born to live in the shadow of another being, and we were not bequeathed with the right of freedom to dwell on other’s visions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Has our society fallen to such contemptible levels? Are we really that misplaced, that we must look to someone else’s ways to feel whole? We must look somewhere else for guidance? That, to me, is one of the sorrowful things I have ever heard. I fear for our future; I fear that independent thought will someday begin to seize to exist. There is nothing left to fear except the persistent refusal to find out the truth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Religion; the satisfaction for your needs, a place to turn when you are too weary to continue searching for the truth. You should never believe those who claim they found truth, but only those you are still yearning for it. Religious persons do, have positive virtues, they do, have optimistic morals, but they settle for not their own vision, but someone else’s vision.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Your elders should always be respected, but just because they contain some higher ranking, does not mean that you should follow intently to what they say, and what they tell you to do. It is in your own will, and your own right, to flourish in your own visions, in your own heart.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Pepsi Case Study Essay

Strategic issue Maintain competitive focus, while splitting PepsiCo and creating governance for the new Pepsi Bottling Group. Internal Analysis Pepsi was invented in 1893, establishing a franchise bottling system of 270 bottlers by 1910. Pepsi struggled in its early years declaring bankruptcy twice. The 1970’s and early 80’s, Pepsi surpassed Coke for the first time. Bottling was a capital-intensive business and involved highly specialized production lines. Bottling and canning could cost between $4 million to $10 million each with a minimal investment cost for a small bottling facility of $25 million to $35 million. It was estimated that 80 to 85 plants were required for full U.S.-distribution, with the cost of a fully efficient large plant with a capacity of 40 million cases to be $75 million in 1998. Among top bottlers in 1998, packaging accounted for 50 per cent of costs of goods sold, concentrate 33 per cent, sweeteners 10 per cent, and labor most of the remaining variable costs. While bottlers’ gross profits often exceeded 40 per cent, operating margins were very thin. Given the intense service prov ided by the bottlers, the relationship between the bottlers and end retailers was critical to success and sales. Pepsi structured its contracts with bottlers so that bottlers were required to purchase concentrate from Pepsi at prices set by Pepsi, giving them much greater flexibility. In the mid 80’s, Pepsi began acquiring many of its independent bottlers and by the mid 1990’s, Pepsi owned half of these outright and had equity positions in many others. Pepsi focused heavily on diversification within the beverage industry as well as beyond that in first into snack foods, with the merger forming PepsiCo and again with Frito-lay, purchased fast-food chains and casual-dining restaurants. Some of these endeavors went well such as the snack foods while restaurant expansion was failing. Analysts became concerned that Pepsi was over extending itself and was in doomed if they continued down the same path. Pepsi made the right choice exiting the casual dining market, with a slimmed down more focused future they could now focus on new profitable ventures. Pepsi’s biggest challenge now was to â€Å"reinvent itself and become a more formidable competitor.† A looming opportunity for Pepsi to be a more effective competitor would be if they were to mimic Coca-Cola’s CCE, which would raise billions of dollars. The result would make Pepsi more competitive and responsive to their  customers by allowing them to separate and focus on different functional areas of the company. The newly created Pepsi Bottling Group (PBG) would be the world’s largest manufacturer, seller and distributor of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, which will provide PBG billion in cash when it goes public. The biggest challenge however was not the IPO, but rather creating a system of corporate governance to see PBG into the future. Craig Weatherup, current president of PepsiCo, CEO of worldwide beverages is faced with splitting PepsiCo’s worldwide bottling company from its concentrate business and the public offering of the PGB , which he would become CEO, and establishes their governance. External Analysis Business began in the Great Depression when it started competing with Coke offering twice the volume for the same price. The cola wars officially began in the 1950’s and continued throughout the century. Intense advertising battles, new packaging, new product introductions, international expansion and price wars erupted between the two companies. Pepsi captured Soviet markets and scored other international successes while Coke international success was dwindling due to poor relations with bottling partners. Pepsi profited from another of Coke’s mistakes, when Coke launched â€Å"New Coke†. However, Pepsi’s luck was short lived when Coke reinstated its old recipe. Originally Coca-Cola agreed to fix price contracts to allow for some adjustment with bottlers. In the 1980’s coke announced a refranchising plan that would eliminate weak bottlers, and expand large bottlers outside of their geographic territories. Additionally coke started to buy all of its bottlers, and created Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE), and independent bottling subsidiary, selling 51% of its shares. By 1998, CCE accounted for more than 60 per cent of Coke North America’s volume and had worldwide sales of approximately $15 billion. The environment of PBG’s IPO was not ideal despite its anticipation by the market as everyone and everything was focused on the dot-com world. Identification and Evaluation of courses of action In order to stay competitive with Coca-Cola, PBG must happen in order to bring in cash flows for future investments. The most difficult task will be to assemble the new board for Pepsi Bottling Group and meeting deadlines by  which the CEO of Pepsi must have a board of directors in place. Corporate governance is the set of rules affecting the way Processes, customs, policies, laws, and institutions a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. Corporate governance also includes the relationships among the many stakeholders involved and the goals for which the corporation is governed. The most likely form of governance for Weatherup to take would be the market-based, most common in the U.S. because of its correlation with the stock market and prices. Since the markets are the primary source of capital, investors are given the most power in determining corporate policies. Therefore, the system relies on the capital markets to exert control over the corporation’s manag ement. Weatherup knew that changes of this magnitude could cause widespread confusion, so one way he could quickly assemble a board and governance would be to fall back on old colleagues and executives of PepsiCo and model PBG with similar persons and mechanisms. An option would be to try to imitate Coca-Cola’s board, and obtain members from their board. Mimicking successful past behaviors of Coca-Cola has boasted well for PepsiCo in the past, so it is likely that new governance similar to theirs would work too. In the past, it has shown that when Pepsi deviates from what Coke is doing it often results in negative outcomes for Pepsi. Having a similar board of directors could keep Pepsi in more of a Coke frame of mind and combine the best from both worlds. A negative drawback to this option would be that it would be very possible for future conflicts of interest and corruption with such close ties. Another option could be, for all of the responsibilities Weatherup is facing he could simply appoint someone else whom he sees fit, from the new board, to serve as CEO in the near future, and have them work closely with Weatherup as he establishes systems, and policies making sure everything stays in line with the original focus. That way you would have his knowledge, skills, and expertise to establish the governance and complete all of the executive duties, but his predecessor would be there watching to see how it was all created and will soon run, it would be similar to an apprenticeship. A positive outcome is that everything would occur on time by the preferred persons. A negative is that people may have doubts in the new CEO’s ability to run the company without the presence of Weatherup, and such uncertainty, could cause for stock prices to fall. Another option could be for Weatherup to ask for an  extension for when PBG goes public. He is said to be â€Å"wearing many hats, stretched too thin, etc.† Extra time would prevent Weatherup from having to rush through policy establishing processes, and could give him the option of picking the very best board of directors available rather just the first people available. Another pro to this option is that it is mentioned that the dot-com. stocks are what is making all the money, so waiting to sell the IPO’s could turn out to be more profitable in the long run.

Friday, August 16, 2019


There are very few movies and even less television shows that are important. Many flock to the theatre to catch up on their stars which they robotically follow in the tabloid newspapers.   For those who like to be entertained by thought provoking films by way of the mindless blockbusters, there are few to choose from. The Ox Bow Incident, The China Syndrome, Schlinder’s List and 12 Angry Men all serve as a different kind of movie: one with a message that needs to be absorbed and recognized.(Maltin, 145) The criteria for the viewer may be different but all of the abovementioned movies, or rather films, specifically 12 Angry Men, serve to portray a message that is timeless. It is the message that one has the moral responsibility and is encouraged in a free democracy, to stand up for injustice by speaking one’s mind freely. This premise will always be timeless and the fact that this movie was filmed in black and white, 50 years ago and with 95% of the movie being shot in real time and in only the jury room, has little significance on the importance of the movie and its impact.(Carr, 83) In 12 Angry Men, 12 jurors are faced with the power to end the life of a young man that is accused of killing his father. It is 1950’s New York and the Puerto Rican population, of which the accused is part of, is immigrating to New York in large numbers, causing distress and raising the ire on the majority.(Weiler, B1) Racist assumptions, coupled with the complete apathy of most of the jurors towards the future of the accused make it an uphill battle for Henry Fonda’s character to convince the other eleven jurors to at least give the boy a fair hearing and to ignore, for an afternoon, the prejudices that would compel them to quickly vote for the death of this young man. The movie works and has stood the test of time because of the actors, the unique way in which it was shot and the subject matter of the film. This movie is required viewing for many law classes and is being studied somewhere in the country nearly every day of the week. One way in which the movie works is that is speaks to the impediments that racial prejudices have on not only society as a whole but on the individual as such hatred wars against the happiness and contentment of the individual are all seen in the movie. The jurors that wanted the accused to get the death penalty seemed to be the angriest. This was specifically the case with the last hold outs towards an acquittal. Jurors # 3 and #10 played by Lee J. Cobb and Edward Beagley. The boy is Hispanic, Puerto Rican to be specific and is referred to as â€Å"one of them† on a number of occasions. ( Lumet, 1957) If it was not made obvious in the film, our better trained eyes and ears can easily see that the comment has racist overtones within it and will almost certainly cloud the ability for those jurors to vote with an impartial mind. Movies that have possessed important messages were sometimes lost because either the actors were of an average quality and/or the flow of the movie just didn’t work. The most obvious reason that this movie works is because of the stellar performances by Henry Fonda, Lee J. Cobb, Jack Warman and Jack Klugman to name a few. Many times, the importance of a movie and its message is lost because the general public simply did not like the movie. An example of this is The Ox Bow Incident. Made in 1943 and starring Henry Fonda. Its serious content did not translate to an audience during WWII and the movie was lost, only to be rediscovered decades later as an important film. ( Maltin, 146 ) 12 Angry Men, though not a blockbuster, was seen as an important movie by critics and the New York Times, at the time of the movie’s release, called it entertainment with a message. The movie works because it is entertaining and as a result, its ability to reach a wider audience and to be respected by said audience is that much more magnified. The movie also works because a contemporary audience can see that it was ahead of its time in its subject matter and message. The ideas of standing up for one’s beliefs were nothing new in film. John Wayne was seen standing up to the perceived evil Native Americans as he helped steal their land and the audiences generally loved him for it. But the idea that somebody would stand up for the rights of a young man with a violent past who was a minority, was something new in mainstream Hollywood. What was even more important was the fact that Henry Fonda stood up for the boy by pointing out the ageism and most importantly, racism of one half of the jurors and the apathy towards their responsibility of the other half. It is the way in which Henry Fonda and an unforgettable cast portray the message to the audience that makes this movie work and will continue to work for years to come. The movie also works because it was different from the majority of the movies coming out at that time. There was no love story, no historically inaccurate western, no blockbuster that was high on explosions and weak on story line but a drama in its purest forms. The movie was filmed in black and white when the majority of the studios was trying to combat the oncoming influence of television and was moving strongly towards Technicolor. There are no dream sequences, no mysterious camera angles or special effects and besides Fonda and Cobb, no real stars. The movie is shot in real time and 95% of the movie was shot in a single room. If this script was shown to any established actor today, the movie would be turned down.   On paper, the film just does not work but when put on the big screen and with the performances of the actors and the way in which the message is portrayed to the audience, it would do anything but fail. The movie also works because ageism, sexism and racism are ongoing problems in America today. A great deal of progress has been made since 12 Angry Men was produced over 50 years ago. And with Barrack Obama announcing his candidacy for President just last week to a rock star welcome, it helps to show how much progress has been made. However, with hate crimes occurring across the country and people still judging others simply by the way that they look, talk or act, 12 Angry Men still speaks about a subject that a contemporary audience can still appreciate and could learn from. This is the test of any great movie: Will it stand the test of time? 12 Angry Men does so for so many reasons and that is why the movie works. The prejudices involved in the movie not only have to do with the accuser’s race but also his age and his background. In many court cases, the past of the accused is not allowed in court as it is seen as being prejudice towards the accused. In the movie, the accused had a long list of violent and non-violent crimes since he was ten. Many of the jurors see this as proof enough as to the guilt of the accused. But Henry Fonda’s character, Juror #9 takes a more enlightened view of the situation by saying that this criminal past has more to do with the environment that the boy grew up in and less to do with the type of person that he is. For the 1950’s, this ideology is before its time and is contrary to the popular logic of the day which prescribed to the notion than â€Å"once a bad seed, always a bad seed† and that many times, a bad reputation was very hard to erase. â€Å"The young age of the accused also plays an important role as juror #3, the last and most vocal standout against the acquittal of the accused sees the problems with his own son mirrored in the troubles that the accused had with his own father.† (Weiler, B1) All three factors lead into the idea that the vast majority of people are incapable of being totally impartial on their own but unless they recognize their prejudices and make specific efforts to overcome these impediments, the diseased mind will always prevent the sufferer from being unbiased. Henry Fonda’s character probably has his prejudices and at one time in the movie, was willing to submit to the majority will of the people and vote for the guilt of the accused if he were made to stand alone any longer. Fonda’s character was able to recognize any impartiality that he might have and was successful in combating its negative effects within the jury room. He took his civic duty very seriously and it was to the benefit of not only the accused but for everyone in that room as well that he do that.   This is the most powerful message in the movie as it relates to not only recognizing one’s prejudices and combating its negative effects but more importantly, being willing to stand up against the majority is who is unwilling to do the same. Being forced to listen to six days of testimony while at the same time being paid only three dollars a day for their services, it is easy to see how some or most of the jurors at the beginning of deliberations, seemed apathetic towards the great responsibility they have to give the accused their undivided attention while deciding his guilt or innocence. This is the case for a number of jurors; specifically juror #7 who is preoccupied with making the Yankee/Indians game later that day. (Lumet, 1957) He feels rushed by the proceedings and desires quick deliberations followed by a unanimous guilty vote. He feels that the accused is guilty but most likely would have voted the way of the majority if that meant that he could have gone to the game, gone home or just been anywhere other than in the courtroom for any additional length of time.   He does not see and cannot be affectively reminded about the awesome power he has to either put a man to death or to set him free. The issue of the guilt or innocence of the accused should be paramount in his mind but sadly, it is not. The scholarly criticism of the movie occurred more at the time of its release than today. It did receive Academy award nominations but did not win. The movie did make money at the time of its release and the reception was generally favorable. However, it was easy to see how anyone attached to the film and even the audience at the time of the movie would be unable to see how influential 12 Angry Men would become. There have been movies that made more money and received more awards by the establishment but the vast majority of those movies have been lost to time and the winners of this year’s Academy Awards will discover the same fate. This is not to say that because of this reality, the movies being presented at this month’s Academy Awards are not well made or important but it is very rare to have a movie like 12 Angry Men, claim such wide recognition and possess such an enduring quality in our disposable American culture. The fact that the movie is in black and white, has actors that contemporary society might not be able to recognize and is shot almost entirely in one room and in real time, might turn off the viewer that likes mindless blockbusters and pointless violence.. But for the true film critic, the teacher or the socially conscious individual, 12 Angry Men is one of those rare works or art that is entertaining and at the same time, makes one think about the world around them. There is a few short list of art work that can lay claim to that accomplishment. 12 Angry Men should be considered part of that list. A portion of the success of failure of the film lies with the viewer. Nobody can deny the social message that the film tries to send to the viewer but there are many people in America who sadly, do not think that anything if importance happened before they were born. For them, the movie will fall on blind eyes.(Teichman, 82) Its lack of color and no explosions, sex or violence will immediately turn off a certain portion of today’s audience. Those people, sadly, cannot be helped. There may be some converts found but the vast majority will never be able to appreciate the importance of this amazing work of art and their only exposure to the movie will be when they are required to view it in school. Sadly, many of these people cannot be helped and will never be able to recognize a different work of art while in this permanent adolescent stage. For those people, the movie was slow, boring and void of any real purpose or meaning. For everyone else, the movie worked on all and more of the levels that were previously mentioned and whether being viewed for the 2nd time or the 10th time, its importance, entertainment value and message, invoke a favorable response from the audience. That is the best that any work of art can hope to accomplish. 12 Angry Men will continue to stand the test of time since it speaks eloquently on many different areas: that prejudices are an impediment to everyone in a democratic society and that standing up for a belief, despite knowing the dangers of such a stand, is honorable and should be recognized as courageous. But also, people do in groups what they wouldn’t do in private. Individuality within a group of strong opinions comes at a price and that price is most often ridicule and misunderstanding. If at the beginning of the movie, the foreman had taken a secret vote, juror #8 may not have been the lone dissenter. The jurors that did not put a great deal of value in the democratic process of trial by jury and didn’t feel that a daily salary of $3 was not worthy of their methodical analysis of the facts, were content to go with the majority, no matter what that decision said. But for the jurors who made it a point to shift group process away from a guilty verdict based on racist assumptions and in light of strong ridicule and little monetary compensation, this movie will continue to be studied and appreciated for years to come. WORKS CITED Carr, J. (2002) 100 Essential Films. Cambridge: De Capo Press. Ellsworth, E. . â€Å"Twelve Angry Men,† Michigan Law Review, May 2003 v101 i6 p1387(21) Lamet, S. 12 Angry Men: 20th Century Fox. 1957. Maltin, L. (1998) Films of the 20th Century. New York: Premier Press. The New York Times, April 15, 1957, â€Å"12 Angry Men†, review by A. H. Weiler Rose, R. (1998) 12 Angry Men: Literary Companion to American Literature. New York: Barnes & Noble. Teichman, H. (1981) My Life: Memoirs of Henry Fonda. New York: Dutton Adult Pub.            

Twelve Keys to Answered Prayer

TWELVE KEYS TO ANSWERED PRAYER Why does God not answer most people’s prayers? Do you know how to pray in a way that will get real results? Here are 12 practical steps that will help secure the favor of God for answered prayer! Key #1—Pray Sincerely to the True God It is absolutely vital that you pray to the very real God of the Bible if you expect genuine answers to your prayers. He reveals Himself to mankind in many ways—in creation, in the Bible, in His foretelling specific divine intervention in world affairs and in direct ANSWERS to those who seek and obey Him through fervent holy worship. In our modern, ecumenical (worldwide) approach to religion, we may think that praying to some vague â€Å"blob† in the sky or to an idol of Buddha is just the same as praying to the CREATOR—the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Israel and Jesus Christ, but it is not the same at all! The true God was revealed by Jesus Christ (Matthew 11:27). To one of His disciples, He said, â€Å"Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known ME†¦? We read of Jesus Christ acknowledging that God was a loving, divine Person—a â€Å"Father. And we see the Father acting through Christ to heal the sick, to comfort the downcast and to teach those whom He calls to keep not only the Ten Commandments, but all of His words as a way of life (Matthew 19:17). Christ also set an example for us in praying to the Father: â€Å"Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said, ‘Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify Youâ€⠄¢Ã¢â‚¬  (John 17:1). We serve an awesome God, with limitless power and glory! When you get down on both knees and lift up your hands in prayer to the great CREATOR of the universe, you should think of to whom you are praying. Remember that He is not only the Creator, but also the active Sovereign ruler of the entire universe and the Bible says that it is God’s good pleasure to give us the Kingdom and all that is contained in it. Be sure you always pray specifically to This God—the true God—and to no other. As you begin your prayer, think about whom you are praying to and consciously worship this Great God who gives you life and breath. Key # 2—Study the Bible It naturally follows that praying to the true God involves believing what He says. And we find His words—instructing human beings how they should live—in the Holy Bible. It reveals essential knowledge that we could not acquire in any other way. It is God’s â€Å"Instruction Manual† for humanity. It tells us who God is what He is like and how we ought to serve Him. In its pages we find God’s own instructions (not suggestions) as to how we ought to live for and pray to Him. You will not receive this full instruction by just â€Å"going to church† or by carelessly reading bits and pieces of the Bible for comfort or inspiration. God commands us in His Word, â€Å"Earnestly study to show yourself approved unto God, a workman unashamed, rightly dividing the Word of Truth† (2 Timothy 2:15). To know God, to understand His will and to believe in His promises, one needs to regularly study His inspired Word in an orderly way—just as you might study a science textbook or a volume on history. A good place to start is the book of Matthew. Read this through slowly and carefully—noting what Jesus actually said, paying particular attention to the many examples of answered prayer. Key #3—Deeply Repent of Your Sins Although from time to time God hears the prayers of anyone who sincerely cries out to Him in time of need, He is not bound by His Word to do this. God’s Word says, â€Å"Behold the Lord’s hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; nor His ear dull, that it cannot hear. But your iniquities have separated you from your God; and your sins have hidden His face from you, so that He will not hear† (Isaiah 59:1-2). It is not our job to psychoanalyze or â€Å"spiritually dissect† those who have not had their prayers answered in the past. But we have a duty to ask ourselves: â€Å"Do I worship the true God? Do I do His will? Please be honest with yourself. It is easy to rationalize or to reason around this very clear scriptural teaching about obeying God’s law for having your prayers answered. As you grow in grace and in the knowledge of Jesus Christ (2 Peter 3:18), He will live His life in you more and more fully over the course of your Christian life. Certainly you will not be perfect (mature) all at once, and no human being has ever been perfect (spotless) except Jesus Christ Himself. But you will be walking in the way of the Ten Commandments by surrendering to Him. By walking with Christ in this manner, you can be assured of having more powerful answers to your prayers than ever before. Key #4 Forgive Others Another vital key to answered prayer is our willingness to truly FORGIVE others. Frankly, our loving Father in heaven simply does not hear those who come to Him in a spirit of revenge, bitterness or hatred. Immediately after giving us the â€Å"Lord’s Prayer†Ã¢â‚¬â€the outline prayer describing the right general approach to talking with God—Jesus went on to instruct His followers: â€Å"If you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also for give you. But if you do not forgive men their trespasses neither will your Father for give your trespasses† (Matthew 6:14-15). And Psalm 66:18-20 says, â€Å"If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear me: but verily (truly) God hath heard me: He hath attended to the voice of my prayer. Blessed be the God, which hath not turned away my prayer, nor His mercy from me. † Key #5—Seek God’s Will Another key to successful prayer is to be absolutely sure that—as far as possible—you align your will and your requests with God’s will. As you zealously study the Bible and yield to let Christ live within you, His will increasingly replaces your own. It affects how you pray. You come to realize that God has made all men and women in His image—that He will call all mankind to understanding and repentance in His own time. With this in mind, you will not be praying just for your own good, but for the good of others as well. Then you can sincerely say to God, as Jesus did: â€Å"Not My will, but Yours be done† (Luke 22:42). Remember this key phrase from the outline prayer of Jesus in Matthew 6, â€Å"Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven† (v. 10). We all need to focus on this as we pray. What is really best for us and everyone concerned in the long run—only God knows for sure! On the other hand, the Bible contains literally dozens of promises and/or direct indications of what God has done or will do in regard to answered prayer. If we pray in faith that God will hear us—and in accordance to His will—we may be sure that He is listening. â€Å"Now this is the confidence that we have in Him, that if we ask anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we know that He hears us, whatever we ask, we know that we have the petitions that we have asked of Him† (1 John 5:14-15). Key #6—Have Faith in God The more you drink in of the Bible, the more deeply you will realize the importance of FAITH. But without faith it is impossible to please Him: for he that cometh to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him† (Heb. 11:6). The bottom line is that you cannot please God without Faith, and generally speaking, the Bible makes it crystal clear that God will not hear and answer your prayer s unless you come to Him in faith. â€Å"But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for he who doubts is like a wave of the sea driven and tossed by the wind. For let not that man suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord† (James 1:6). We need to take careful note of this vital teaching of Jesus Christ with respect to prayer and faith: â€Å"Have faith in God. For assuredly, I say to you whoever says to this mountain, ‘Be removed and be cast into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart, but believes that those things he says will be done, he will have whatever he says. Therefore I say unto you, whatever things you ask when you pray, BELIEVE that you receive them, and you WILL have them† (Mark 11:22-24). By continually drinking in of the Bible and praying for faith, you will find that your faith will increase more and more. Understand that living faith is produced by God’s Holy Spirit within us, and Jesus said, â€Å"If you then, being evil know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy spirit to those who ask Him! † (Lk. 11:13). God wants to give us those things we ask for if we humbly ask for them and our motives and priorities are not selfish ones. So we need to pray to Him continually to give us the FAITH we need. We need to learn to BELIEVE in the promises of God. We need to learn to believe that God is REAL—that He has perfect wisdom, perfect love and perfect POWER. Realize that He will KEEP all his promises! We need to learn to imitate Abraham, the father of the faithful (Romans 4:16), for he â€Å"did not waver at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God, and being fully convinced that what He had promised He was also ABLE to perform† (Rom. 4:20-21). This is real faith. This is the attitude you must have to receive genuine answers to your prayers. Key # 7—Be Persistent If your child asks you just once for a bicycle and then seemingly forgets about it and never brings the subject up again how deep is his or her desire for it? How much do you think they would appreciate it if they did get one? And so it is when we ask for something from our Heavenly father. Before He supernaturally intervenes, God wants to know that we deeply desire whatever we ask for, and that we will respect and worship Him for answering our prayer. In other words, God uses our need or desire as a vehicle to draw us closer to Him, spiritually—to cause us to focus on His will and on what is really best for us and for any others who might be involved. If we carelessly ask for something, and then virtually forget that we ever did, what would that indicate? It might tell God that we are not all that interested in His doing what we ask! Or it could be that all our desires are shallow, perhaps constantly changing, and that we would not feel a deep sense of appreciation and worship even if He constantly answered such shallow prayers! (See Luke 18:1-8). God wants us to be persistent. He wants us to walk with Him, talk with Him and commune with Him continually—day after day in this age, and ultimately throughout eternity! The Apostle Paul instructs us to â€Å"pray without ceasing† (1 Thess. 5:17). David said in Psalm 55:16-17, â€Å"As for me, I will call upon God, and the Lord shall save me. Evening and morning and at noon I will pray, and cry aloud, and He shall hear my voice. † So pray regularly. Spend plenty of TIME communing with Jesus Christ and your Heavenly Father. And never—EVER—stop praying to God! For, in more ways than one, your very life depends upon this contact! Key #8—Pray Fervently In Hosea 7:14 God cites as one of the reasons He did not hear the prayers of ancient Israel was that â€Å"and they have not cried unto Me with their heart. The Moffatt translation of this same verse reads, â€Å"They never put their Heart into their prayers. † What about us? Do you and I pray with our entire being? Or do we just rattle off a memorized prayer like some pagan chant or perhaps sleepily mumble a few half-hearted requests to God just before drifting off to sleep? Again, remember Jesus’ example of getting up early to pray to the Father. For prayer was vitally important to Christ. That is why He apparently put it first on His schedule—before anything else could interfere. And he probably came back to God repeatedly as the day progressed. The Book of Hebrews tells us about Christ’s passionate, heartfelt prayers: â€Å"Who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and supplications, with vehement cries and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, and was heard because of His godly fear† (Heb. 5:7). It is good to go to a private place to pray as Jesus instructed in Matthew 6. Alone, we can occasionally cry out to our temptations or difficulties where only the help of God Himself can fully take care of the situation. In Luke 22:44 Jesus was crying out to His Father in such an intense and passionate manner that some of His capillaries may have literally burst—filling certain sweat ducts with blood. In our modern secular, hedonistic, laid back society, we need to grasp that the truly vital issues of life are not material. Rather, they are spiritual—having to do with our Creator and with all eternity. They are certainly worthy of getting excited about. So let us put our hearts into our prayers. Let us be fervent! Let us be passionate as we pour out our hearts to the awesome Personality who wants to be our real Father: the High and Lofty One who inhabits eternity† (Isaiah 57:15). Key #9—Ask God to Fashion and Mold You A genuine man or woman of God is one who has totally surrendered to the will of the Creator. Through the Prophet Isaiah God tells us: â€Å"But on this one will I look: on Him who is poor and of a contrite spirit, and who trembles at My word† (Isa. 66:2). This attitude of seeking God’s will rather than our own—of total submission to our Heavenly father—is vital to our prayer life if we are to receive constant and powerful answers. Do you want to truly grow spiritually? Listen to Ephesians 4:13: â€Å"Till we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ. † If you’re serious about growing and becoming mature then we need to all â€Å"wrestle with God† in our prayers as Jacob literally wrestled with Him and prevailed (Gen. 32:24-32). We need to engage Him in long, thoughtful conversation about how we can more fully yield to Him, walk with Him in our lives. We need to constantly ask God to help us fulfill the great PURPOSE for which we were born. It is fine—within limits—to pray for physical things. BUT THE ULTIMATE PURPOSE OF PRAYER IS TO HELP US FOCUS ON GOD, YIELD TO HIM AND SURRENDER OUR WILL TO HIS AS WE CULTIVATE A VITAL INTERACTIVE RELATIONSHIP. In this way He becomes increasingly real to us. Through constant and heartfelt Bible Study and prayer we must seek God’s will. We must grasp that our past ideas and attitudes about God and religion in general need much improvement. This process will bring us to a point in our lives where we learn to walk with Him, talk with Him, quietly commune with Him off and on all day long. Sincerely ask Him to mold you into His own image. The approach of yielding to God as you pray, of asking Him to rebuke and chasten and fashion you, is one of the vital keys to really powerful prayer. Key #10—Give Praise and Thanks to Almighty God Another of the qualities that made King David a man after God’s own heart was the sincere love, worship and adoration that he continually expressed toward the great creator who blessed him, sustained him and guided him. The entire Book of Psalms is literally filled with David’s prayers of worship and adoration. Listen to Psalm 18:1-3, â€Å"I will love you, O Lord my strength. The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold, I will call upon the Lord, who is worthy to be praised; so shall I be saved from my enemies. † Fifty (50) verses and David never asked for one thing! All he does is give God praise and thanks for what He has already done. When was the last time you got down on your knees or walked on your feet and just gave God continuous repetitious praise and thanks for what He has already done? We need to constantly thank and praise God for every good gift and for His help and blessing in every situation (1 Thess. 5:18). Instead of losing control in our enthusiasm for sports figures, rock and rap stars or any other human idols, let us unashamedly pour out our whole being in thanking, praising and worshiping the God who made us and who gives us life and breath. This is the God who forgives us time and time and time again, who guides and blesses us, and who in the end—plans to share His eternal glory with us if we will only respond and learn to love Him as He loves us. Key #11—Pray in the Name of Jesus Christ To truly and correctly use Jesus’ name in prayer we must OBEY Him and again ask according to His will. Remember that in the Sermon on the Mount, Christ warned: â€Å"Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father in heaven. Those who do not really know the true God or His way are simply not capable of properly coming before Him in the name of Jesus Christ. To pray in the name of Jesus is to approach the throne of God through the name—the office and authority of Jesus Christ who gives us access to the very throne room of God. So as you approach God in heartfelt, regular prayer, be sure you are obeying your Lord and Master Jesus Christ. Though He does not expect instant spiritual maturity, He does want us to walk in His way through the help of the Holy Spirit. When we do we can then come to the Father through Christ alone to make the direct contact of effective prayer. And remember, James said, â€Å"the effectual (unceasing) fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much† (James 5:16b). Key #12—EXPECT AN ANSWER!!!!!!!!!!!