Monday, September 30, 2019
How you adapt your practice to meet the health and physical development needs of children, taking into account age, gender, ethnicities, individual needs and abilities In my setting I help to promote childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and physical development through daily routines and activities. In all my activities I have in mind that children are individual. I also make use the term Ã¢â¬Å"one size fits allÃ¢â¬ approach to do my planning. When planning I put into consideration, the age, gender, ethnicities, experience, ability and the specific needs of each child. I aim to give all children in the setting the opportunity to succeed and reach their highest level of personal achievement. I analyse the attainment of different groups of children to ensure that all children are achieving as much as they can. I also make ongoing assessments of each child progress. Other things that I put into consideration to help me achieve my aim are; layout, safety of equipment eg: not too many small piece s, Cleaning rota, flooring-carpet, laminated flooring for easy clean, toys and equipment that challenges children I also consider children cultural/religious practices eg: some clothes worn such as sariÃ¢â¬â¢s can be difficult for PE, Adult ratio, dietary needs, training of staff-health and safety, health and hygiene, SchoolSAFE etc., access-are doors suitable for mobility aids. The type of indoor and outdoor activities that will encourage balance, co-ordination, gross and fine motor skills, manipulative skills and hand/eye co-ordination In my setting, I make use of environment and resources. I encourage children of all ages to play together happily because I understand the benefits of different types of play and I help children to experience play that will support their overall development. ACTIVITY BALANCE AND COORDINATION GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS HAND-EYE COORDINATION Push-and-pull toys, e.g. having dolly in a buggies Climbing, frames, slides Drawing and marks making with crayon, chalks, pencils Jigsaws and puzzles Pretend play i.e making tea, or cooking Self dressing, including buttoning and unbuttoning own clothing Riding bike and scooters Kicking,throwing and catching a ball Dancing and moving to music Walking, Running, jumping and skipping Threading and needling Play dough Computer moving the mouse Water and sand play Cutting with scissor Standing, Hopping In what circumstances you might change routines or activities, how you would adapt existing or planned activities or routines. It is very important to actively plan to meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s need because there is otherwise a real danger that some childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs might be overlooked, so in my setting I put this into consideration. Activities are usually planned with a group of children in mind, with regards to individual needs. However routines and activities could be changed if the children became bored or I run out of resources. I always have the thought about how an activity could be extended or adapted if needed at the last minute. In my setting all activities and areas of the setting are accessible to all children, there are also sufficient space between furniture and activities that allow free movement around the classroom. What the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and practices are regarding risk assessment and safety and why it is important to follow these? Risk assessment is about being aware of potential dangers in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and then taking step to minimise the risk. Risk assessments must be carried out in order to identify hazards and find out the safest way to perform certain tasks and procedures. In my setting, I have a list of what and where to carry out the risk assessment so I carried out this risk assessment every morning. I follow my setting policies and practices regarding risk assessment and safety because it is important to makes my settings safe places for children. What is meant by challenging activities for individual babies and children and the link between challenging activities and developmental progress. How you encourage children to extend their range or skills and achievements. In my setting I always encourage all children of all ages and gender to increase their range or explore the range of their movement and limits of their bodies. This is achieving by: I join the children in some activitiesÃ e.g play with ball and making play dough I encourage both boys and girls to join in all activities, individually and together I make sure all children have a go, they take turn I make sure all children have equal access. I give them praise and encouragement when they perform new skill e.g well done or clapping. And at time give them award inform of sticker. K2D293 How to provide opportunities for children to rest and recover from physical activity and why this is important In my setting after physical activity I make sure children have opportunities to have a drink of water Sit down quietly or lie down in the quiet/book corner. This is because they need to catch their breath, slow their heart rates, rest their muscles and generally recharge their batteries. In my setting I also follow a routine that encourages children to relax or rest. It is important for babies, toddlers and young people to rest because it will help the growth and development, and it will help them to relax their brain. How to carry our risk assessment that takes all reasonable precautions without restricting opportunities for development; how organisational policy can support this. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines on healthy eating and nutrition for children and why it is important that these are followed by childcare practitioners As a practitioner it is important to follow the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines on healthy eating and nutrition for children, so in my setting as am the one in charge of cooking and preparing snacks for children, I have recently renew my food and hygiene certificate. I make sure that healthy and nutritious food is prepared for the children as I know it is illegal to purposefully contaminated food. The nutritional needs of babies and young children differ according to their age, religion and dietary. There has been a huge amount of research into the problems of childhood obesity- caused by a combination of eating too much especially fatty and sugary food. Lots of snack between meals with little or not enough physical exercise, it has been proven beyond doubt that diet and physical activity in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s early years can affect health in later life. There are some guidelines for a healthy diet: Enjoy your food Eat a variety of different foods Eat the right amount to maintain a healthy weight Eat plenty of food rich in starch and fibre Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables Do not eat too many foods that contain a lot of fat Do not have sugary foods and drinks too often In my setting I try as much as possible to follow these guidelines. K2D296 What are appropriate foods to give to children, what foods are unsuitable and why Link to K2D295 K2D297 Special dietary requirements and food preparation, related to culture, ethnicity or religious beliefs In my setting as a child is registered I find out if the child has any specific dietary requirements sot that I can meet the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs whilst still promoting a healthy diet. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s dietary requirements are often determined by their family, culture, ethnicity or religious beliefs. Christians may give up certain foods for Lent Jews may not eat pork or shellfish etc. Muslims my breast-fed until the age of two years and may not eat pork or pork products. Sikhs may be vegetarian or eat only chicken, lamb or fishÃ Hindus may eat no beef or be vegetarian and my drink no alcohol Why it is important that all dietary information is documented and shared with others e.g. food allergies In my setting information about all dietary is documented and shared with other staff in order to avoid any mistake as any mistake made could cause serious harm to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Information about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s allergies to food and drink are regularly updated in my setting. This is always discussed with parents when a child is admitted. How you can encourage healthy eating practices in children In my setting I make children to be aware of healthy foods and how good they are for their bodies. I get them involved in their food as soon as they show an interest. Introduce lots of foods with different tastes and textures East as a group as much as possible, as it will encourage children to enjoy mealtime Introduce children to multicultural healthy foods that are new and interesting Introduce children to exotic fruits and vegetables that are new and interesting Involve children in shopping and preparing healthy foods. Make myself a role model, by drinking water at all time and eating fruit and vegetable also. The need for good oral hygiene and how and why this can be encouraged In my setting, I encourage children to look after their teeth by: Brushing their teeth every morning and night Avoid sweetened drinks at any age Drinking plain water after meals Diet with plenty of calcium, fluoride, vitamins A, C and D and food that need chewing. Regularly visit to the dentist as soon as teeth appear. Principles of cross infection and basic food hygiene In my setting, I make sure children wash their hands, before and after eating, when they go to toilet they washes their hands. As the children washed their hand there is a particular song I thought them, Ã¢â¬Å"This is the way we wash our hands, wash our hands, wash our hands, this is the way we wash our hands all day long. Correct disposal of different types of waste according to procedures and why this is required In my setting, in several occasion I have to dispose of bodily waste like vomit, urine and faeces. I make sure this are disposed of correctly in order to avoid contamination of surfaces and materials that are used to prepare food, or that children work on. I always wear disposable gloves and apron when dealing with waste I make sure I dispose waste promptly and in the appropriate bin. I always wipe surfaces that waste has been in contact with, by using the correct fluids and cloths. I dispose of my gloves and apron and wash my hands thoroughly after dealing with waste Activities that can be undertaken by children to raise awareness of their own bodies and their health needs, according to their age, gender, needs and abilities In my setting I make sure children are aware of their own bodies at the same time teach them how to look after their body to keep them healthy and safe. This is an ongoing process for children because their bodies are changing and developing all the time. Children benefit from understanding that in order to grow and develop their body needs healthy food, water, exercise, rest and to be cared for in a hygienic way. Furthermore all children experience times when they feel unwell. I also provide activities in accordance with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s age, gender, needs and abilities. Songs singing during circle time involving all the part of the body like Ã¢â¬Ëhead shoulders, knees and toesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Having a discussion about the theme Ã¢â¬ËAll about meÃ¢â¬â¢ this encourage children to focus on themselves and their bodies H olding food-tasting events for new healthy food. Pretend play, e.g. doctor and patient Details of health surveillance of children and young people, the role of immunisations and information on regimes for children Heath surveillance can be describe as close supervision or observations that are primarily carried out to detect any problems with a child or young personÃ¢â¬â¢s development with the aim of getting them the appropriate support and treatment in future. Child health surveillance should be carried out in partnership with the parent as they are the experts and the best people to identify health, developmental and behavioural problems in their own children. It is a positive experience for parents. In my setting, we always ask parent if they are up-to-date with their children immunisation and further explain to them the important of immunisation. Immunisation is to protect children from diseases that are very serious and could result to death or serious handicaps. It also protects children by preventing diseases from being passed on. Age immunisation is given Diseases protected against Name of vaccine Two months old Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Pneumococcal infection DTaP/IPV/Hib Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, (PCV) Three months old Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Meningitis C DTaP/IPV/Hib MenC Four months old Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Meningitis C; Pneumococcal infection DTaP/IPV/Hib MenC PCV Around 12 months old Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) Meningitis C Hib/MenC Around 13 months old Measles, mumps and rubella Pneumococcal infection MMR PCV Three years and four months or soon after Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio Measles, mumps and rubella DTaP/IPV or dTaP/IPV, MMR 13 to 18 years old Diphtheria, tetanus, polio Td/IPV 12 to 18 years old (girls only) Human papilloma virus (HPV) Ã¢â¬â increases the risk of cervical cancer HPV In addition, some babies in high-risk groups are given a BCG immunisation for protection against tuberculosis shortly after they are born. Higher risk infants may also receive immunisation against Hepatitis B. Your doctor/health visitor will give you more information if your child needs these immunisations. How chronic illnesses may affect physical development and how to access further information and support about particular conditions Children with chronic illness may be physical affected. The get tired quickly and so miss out on some activities. I need to keep track of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the setting so as to know if they have missed key activities. But children who have chronic illnesses and physical difficulties are given opportunities to join in fully with all discussions and activities. I get support and information from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent/career as they will beÃ well informed, I can also search through internet, support groups and health organisation or Libraries.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The resulting copper (II) sulfate solution when cooled can easily crystallize which is in the solid form and the amount of product can be accurately measured by using electronic balance to get the mass of the The experiment is carried out to calculate the percentage crystal formed. Yield of the salt formed. The percentage yield is the percentage of purity of the product that we want and the actual yield is always less than the theoretical value as there are many factors to affect the purity Of the product such as environmental factor, systematic error, random error and others.Therefore, it is very hard to get a 100% yield throughout the experiment. Objective: To make a salt and to calculate the percentage yield of the salt. Reagents & Apparatus: 20 ml Sulfuric acid MM, g Copper (II) carbonate, Bunsen burner, Tripod stand, Gauze, White tile, Filter funnel and filter paper, Glass rod, 100 ml Glass beaker, Conical flask 250 ml Petri dish, Balance Spatula, Procedure: Stage 1 1 Add 20 ml MM sulfuric acid in a 100 ml beaker. Heat carefully on the tripod with a blue flame until nearly boiling. 2 When the acid is hot enough, turn off the Bunsen burner and stand the beaker on a white tile. Use a spatula to add small portions of copper (II) carbonate into the beaker. The reaction is exothermic, so be careful when adding the solid. Stir the mixture gently for about half a minute after each addition. 4 When all the copper (II) carbonate has been added, allow the beaker to cool slightly; meanwhile set up Stage 2. Stage 2 5 Fold a filter paper to fit into a filter funnel, and put it in the funnel. Place the funnel in the neck of a conical flask. 6 When the beaker is cool enough to hold at the top, pour the contents into the filter paper in the funnel. Gently swirl the contents to mix; allow to filter through. Rinse the beaker and pour the Lear blue solution back into it. Boil the solution until the volume is half the original volume. Cool the solution. 8 Obtain the mass off dry Petri dish; label it with your group number. Carefully pour the warm solution into the dish and leave aside for a week. 9 After one week, obtain the mass of the dry crystals. Result : 1 What was the color of copper (II) carbonate? What was the color of the solution produced after the reaction? Before reaction (Copper (II) Carbonate) After reaction (Copper (II) Sulfate) Color Green Blue 2 Describe your crystals.The crystal formed is in blue rhombic shape. 3 Mass of the dry crystals = 3. Egg Precaution steps : 1 . The position of eyes must be perpendicular to the scale of measuring cylinder to avoid parallax error. 2. Stir the mixture gently to ensure the copper(al) carbonate, is fully reacted with sulfuric acid, 3. Handle the acidic solution using gloves to avoid the acid from splitting to the hands. Discussion: 1 Calculate the theoretical yield of crystals that could have been made. + (as) (as) +(l) + (g) = ml=20 =o. Moll -0. 02 x (249. 5) = 0. Mol -?4. Egg Mass of the crystal ( ) 2 Calculate the percentage yield. Percentage yield = x 100% = x 100% = 63. 93% 3 a) Is it possible to prepare copper (II) sulfate if we start with copper (II) oxide and sulfuric acid? If so, describe the procedure. Yes, it is possible to prepare copper (II) sulfate if we start with copper(al) oxide and sulfuric acid. To prepare copper (II) sulfate , prepare of the O. MM sulfuric acid and pour portions of copper(al) oxide is added to the beaker until excess. Stir the mixture and pour into the filter funnel.The filtrate is then heated until the illume becomes half and cools the solution to crystallize. The crystal which is copper (II) sulfate will be formed. The crystal is then rinsed with water and dried with filter paper. B) Is it possible to prepare copper (II) sulfate if we start with copper metal and sulfuric acid? If so, describe the procedure. No, because the position of copper ion is lower than hydrogen ion in electrochemical series . Hence, it doesn't react with acid. Concl usion: As the conclusion, it shows that salt can be made by reacting acid with metal carbonate together.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Report on oncology nursing career - Essay Example Oncology Nursing Oncology nursing involves the task of conducting research on cancer, taking care of cancer patients directly and performing administrative functions to treat cancer incidents. Thus, an oncology nurse is responsible for providing care and supervising cancer patients whom are chronically or critically ill (Williamson, 2008). Furthermore, an oncology nurse is expected to monitor the physical condition of the cancer patients, formulate strategies to manage the symptoms and give medical prescription. Consequently, owing to the critical roles the oncology nurses are expected to conduct to protect and treat chronically ill cancer patients form deaths, they should possess intensive qualifications. Indeed, for an individual to be become an oncology nurse, the individual should undergo a comprehensive training on psychological and physiological needs of cancer patients. This involves understanding the prevention and detection of cancer, diagnosis and treatment, survivorship, e nd-of- life care and rehabilitation of cancer patients (ONS, 2007). Thus, the oncology nurses are prepared through the educational system with the knowledge of providing primary, sensitive and painkilling care to cancer patients by applying genomics and genetics knowledge. This is done through educational program that gives the students teachings on advanced pharmacology, physical assessment and pathophysiology (Williamson, 2008). Consequently, upon graduation the oncology graduates gain additional skills, knowledge and abilities during their practice experience which may not be provided during the entry educational competency qualifications. Owing to this high demands for one to admitted in the oncology nursing profession, the remunerations have been relatively growing over the last couple of years and second after the medical and surgical nursing (Williams & Wilkins, 2011). Indeed, latest empirical findings have shown that the salary increment over the last five years between 2006 and 2011 surpassed the inflation change in the same period. The salaries increased by a rate of 22% between 2006 and 2007 while inflation increased by 11% in the same period (Williams & Wilkins, 2011). This depicts that the salary of oncology nurses have been fairly increasing since they are able to compensate for the hiking change of money value in the market. Another aspect that is witnessed in the salary reward of the oncology nurses is that they face differential remunerations according to their level of study, specialisation or healthcare organization they serve. Indeed, on average the nurses earn a salary of $60,000 per annum. However, depending on the number of years the nurses has spent in their current position, the rate of reward increases. This is also, replicated in rewarding the nurses according to their job title. Furthermore, if an oncology nurse is a registered member of a given union, they earn more than those not registered. Similarly, oncology nurses working in r ecognized Magnet facilities enjoy higher pays than those in Non-Magnet facilities. This is also, witnessed in private hospitals, community hospitals, university hospitals and military hospitals where the salaries differs in an increasing rate respectively. Moreover, an oncology nurse whom has higher level of education enjoys a higher reward compared to other. This is also, applied by segmenting the rate of rewarding the nur
Friday, September 27, 2019
RESPONSE Waiting for Superman - Movie Review Example Key Idea from the movie In America child education system is set to be depended on fund raisers, which proves to be quite unsuccessful sometimes. The American sloganÃ¢â¬ no child left behindÃ¢â¬â¢ has become contemptuous hitting line. Its shame, other countries education system is out ranking the ever-famed American system. The movie Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for SupermanÃ¢â¬ 1 portrays the school life of five ambitious though poor kids namely; Bianca, Emily, Anthony, Daisy, and Francisco studying in charter school. All deserve better in life and are capable of achieving their respective goals. GuggenheimÃ tries to show how the current system is hindering their progress rather than boosting. An important feature appeasing me is the directorÃ¢â¬â¢s aim in developing Ã¢â¬Ëeducation system-renewalÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas in viewers mind.In the film as all have proven results of success, they are assaulted with applications, and the families have to submit to a abashing lottery system2. As winni ng names are called, I am filled with sympathy to the pointÃ¢â¬âa childÃ¢â¬â¢s future shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hang on so primordial a process. It is inferred that a good Ã¢â¬âeducation necessarily doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t essentially calls for a high social status. We should visualize faces of children whose entire future is claimed on our incapability to change the education system. The stunning attack of September 11 in New York has put forward few implications about the Arab Education system3.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Fences - Essay Example Kittel when he was born to a German father and an African-American mother in 1945 and was raised in Pittsburgh mostly by his mother and his step-father. Wilson witnessed the areas where blacks were highly discriminated and undermined. He himself became the victim of racism when he was accused of plagiarism in school for writing a sophisticated essay and was thrown out of the institute. Fences portray the condition of blacks in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The play begins in 1957 between the Korean and Vietnam wars and ends in 1965. But the themes of the play directly hits the consciousness in a pre-civil-rights-movement and pre-Vietnam Ã¢â¬âwar-era-psyche. In the play, Maxson is the representative of an amalgamation of black menÃ¢â¬â¢s history of the south and the present life of the north. WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s plays take place in his home town of Pittsburgh and Fences is no exception. Wilson draws a clear picture of the America in 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. He portrays the time through his play as a new world of opportunity when the blacks began to open up, leaving those like Tory, who were raised in the first half of the century, only to feel like aliens in their own land. The play Fences is divided into two acts, the Act I comprises of four scenes where as the Act II comprises of five scenes. The Play opens on Friday which is Bono and ToryÃ¢â¬â¢s pay day. Both the person goes to ToryÃ¢â¬â¢s house for their weekly ritual of drinking and chatting. Tory asked Mr. Rand, their boss about the discrimination done with the blacks and the reason for not allowing them to drive the garbage car and only engaging them to lift garbage. Act I also puts forward many other issues of the play like Bono thinking about ToryÃ¢â¬â¢s infidelity towards his wife and Cory (Tory and RoseÃ¢â¬â¢s son) recruited by a college football team. Tory moves back in time and start to narrate the story about his struggle in the July of 1943 with death. Lyons arrives at ToryÃ¢â¬â¢s house because he knows that it is ToryÃ¢â¬â¢s pay day. In the meantime, Rose
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
A talk show - Essay Example Much like a caged lion, the already-burdened guest feels that he or she is being backed into a proverbial corner, forced to defend themselves against hostile strangers.Ã Much like a caged lion, the already-burdened guest feels that he or she is being backed into a proverbial corner, forced to defend themselves against hostile strangers.Ã The host and audience continue to try to break down these defenses with commentaries and verbal assaults against the guest, leading to erratic or violent explosions of anger.Ã Provoking hostility is not an ethical business behavior solely in the pursuit of gaining better ratings. Talk show hosts that engage in approval of psychological warfare have serious moral implications for society. When these hostile situations occur, it shows a breakdown of honorable and principled social behavior in contemporary society, illustrated by applauding audience members clearly entertained by guest aggression. Guests of talk shows should be treated with more sensitivity in order to avoid hostile outbursts and recognize their complex psychological needs in order to avoid future incidents of this type of behavior.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE LABOUR MARKET - Essay Example Introduction The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (hereafter referred to as United Kingdom, UK, or Britain) is a unity state consists of four countries namely England, Scotland and Northern Island. It governs its people under a constitutional monarchy through parliamentary system. UK has been known as a country that had pioneered the phenomenon that changed the course of history known as the Industrial Revolution. Thus, United Kingdom holds the pride of being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first industrialised country in history. As the world history progress however, UK was also one of the first countries that would face the brunt of two world wars. UK suffered serious setbacks during the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, despite of the economic and social setbacks of World War I and II to Great Britain, it proved its resilience as it stands to be one of the most politically influential countries in the world in both arenas of politics and economy at present. The State of Un ited Kingdom has able to maintain its stature as a highly developed country. BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is being run based on the principles of market liberalization and low taxation and regulation1. Perhaps, it can easily be claimed that globalization dictates United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and have a great influence in the decision making process of the political spectrum. Globalization has become the centre and the primary the very influential consideration in United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s trade and bargain system with other states or countries. UK government depends on the unyielding interface of markets, countries, technologies, and capital in a much cheaper and faster rate that globalization brings. The UK government believes that the key to success in business is to integrate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self in the international and cross-cultural communication, collaboration, and cooperation2. Thus, United Kingdom plays a role of crucial importance in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s globalization thrust being one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest capitalist magnates. This is the reason why the British government has been one of the most active states to the different world trade meetings, conferences, and conventions. Just recently, the UK government announce its more active involvement with the European Union, World Trade Organization (WTO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G20 as part of its strategy for strengthening the multilateral trading system3. Being one of the most open economies in the world, United Kingdom calls for a strong, sustainable and open economy that would benefit business domestically and internationally. UK recognizes the significant impact of globalization in its economy4. Albeit criticisms and pessimist perceptions on the effects of an all-out open economy, the government of the United Kingdom pursues the direction of globalization as its economic agenda. British government believes that globalization is more significant to the U KÃ¢â¬â¢s economy now compared than before. Notwithstanding the fact that most economic critique blame the concept of globalization in the crises besetting United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢
Monday, September 23, 2019
Is global climate change man-made - Research Paper Example As such the human activities on the environment have direct and indirect impact on climate change. The aerosols and greenhouse gases lead to change due to the alteration of the solar radiation and the infrared radiation, which form a significant component of the energy balance of the earth (IPCC 34). Climate change, from its very roots, is a human driven trend. It began back in the 1750 when the industrial era began. Industrial revolution was an age that saw factories emit substantial amount of gases to the atmosphere thereby resulting to the change (Sondergard 23). The revolution came with a warming influence that substantially changed the climate. The impact of the human activities during this exceeded the known natural changes such as volcanic eruptions and solar changes. Climate scientists agree that the trends in the global climate change are mainly caused by the activity of man on the land (IPCC 56). The human beings constantly expand the green house effect and the trend has been so for a very long time in history. The warming happens when the atmosphere traps heat that radiates from the atmosphere. Climate change happens when some gases in the atmosphere block heat from the earth from escaping. These gases are emitted mainly as a result of the human activity on the surface of the earth. One of these major gases is the carbon (IV) oxide. According to NAS (34), the human activities that emit such gases are potential producers of climate change. When gases remain in the atmosphere for a long time, they fail to respond to the changes in temperature whether physical or chemical and force the climate change to occur. There are those gases that are the potential producers of global warming. One of those gases is water vapor. This is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but it also plays the significant role of being feedback to the changes in climate. As explains Sondergard (102), as the atmosphere warms, the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Report of Warwickshire College - Essay Example ed for fashion, sport, beauty, hair and sport and after this, in the year 2007 the college merged with Pershore College in Worcestershire which is known as famous Centre of Horticulture Excellence (Warwickshire College, 2014). Liabilities can be defined as the obligations or legal debts which arise during the time of operation of the business. Liabilities can be paid off by money and goods or services. Liabilities include mortgages, both short and long term loans, accrued expenses, deferred revenues and accounts payable. These are important aspect of a business organization as they have an impact on the financial performance of the business. Generally current liabilities are those which are payable in one year and long term liabilities are those which can be paid over years (Holgate, 2006, pp. 122-123). Current Liabilities of the college will include Bank loans of 1000000 pounds, loans from other sources 44000 pounds, creditors of 2278000 pounds, Accruals of 1604000 pounds, unpaid VAT of 63000 pounds, payments that are received in advance of 683000 pounds and 1519000 pounds is to be paid to the skills funding agency. Long term liabilities include bank loans of 17000000 pounds, unpaid VAT of 184 ponds and loans from other sources of 24000 pounds (Warwickshire College, 2013, p. 40). Record keeping is also known as record management which is professional process to get easy and quick access and step by step guidance to access the confidential and archived records which may provide sensitive and personal records about the college. Record management process includes identifying, categorizing, selecting, storing, protecting, archiving, conserving, maintaining and demolishing the records. Record keeping is an important step for start up of Warwickshire College because management of records related to VAT and Tax liabilities will be helpful for the management to track the liabilities in future. The college is comes under Schedule 6of Finance Act 2010 and the college
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Exploring the Issues behind Patient-Assisted Suicide Essay Death is as much a part of human existence, of human growth and development, like birth. All humans need to undergo all these processes as they journey through life. However, death sets a limit on our time in this world, and life culminates in death. However, when we intervene with some of these natural processes, problems arise because it intrudes in lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s natural processes. This is why, suicide is not just perceived as a medical problem because it also involves legal, ethical, social, personal, and financial considerations. It is not just morally reprehensible for a physician, or any medical practitioner, to assist the patient to conduct this procedure because it negates their responsibility to preserve life, suicide also devalues the life of the patient as its fate is put entirely in the hands of a human being to intrude with the natural process of things. For this reason, the debate over euthanasia (or patient-assisted suicide) involves many professionals, as well as the patients and their families. The arguments now have to do with the dignity of the patients, the quality of their lives, their mental state, and sometimes their usefulness to society. For example, the patient who is in a vegetative state is considered dead by some but not by others, and this case presents substantial ethical and logistical problems. The Oxford Dictionary of English (2005) defines euthanasia as Ã¢â¬Å"the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible comaÃ¢â¬ . However, euthanasia means much more than a Ã¢â¬Å"painless deathÃ¢â¬ , or the means of procuring it, or the action of inducing it. The definition specifies only the manner of death, and if this were all that was implied a murderer, careful to drug his victim, could claim that his act was an act of euthanasia. We find this ridiculous because we take it for granted that in euthanasia it is death itself, not just the manner of death. How can someone administer a medical Ã¢â¬Å"procedureÃ¢â¬ to the one who dies in the end? If a person requests the termination of his or her life, the action is called voluntary euthanasia (and often also assisted suicide). If the person is not mentally competent to make an informed request, the action is called non-voluntary euthanasia. Both forms should be distinguished from involuntary euthanasia, which involves a person capable of making an informed request, but who has not done so. Involuntary euthanasia is universally condemned and plays no role in current moral controversies. A final set of distinctions appeals to the activeÃ¢â¬âpassive distinction: passive euthanasia involves letting someone die from a disease or injury, whereas active euthanasia involves taking active steps to end a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. All of these distinctions suffer from borderline cases and various forms of ambiguity. The focus of recent public and philosophical controversy has been over voluntary active euthanasia (VAE), especially physician-assisted suicide. Supporters of VAE argue that there are cases in which relief from suffering supersedes all other consequences and that respect for autonomy obligates society to respect the decisions of those who elect euthanasia. If competent patients have a legal and moral right to refuse treatment that brings about their deaths, there is a similar right to enlist the assistance of physicians or others to help patients cause their deaths by an active means. Usually, supporters of VAE primarily look to circumstances in which (1) a condition has become overwhelmingly burdensome for a patient, (2) pain management for the patient is inadequate, and (3) only a physician seems capable of bringing relief (Dworkin, Frey Bok, 1998). One well-known incident that VAE came into the headlines was when it was provided by the bizarre activities of Dr.Ã Jack Kevorkian in early 1990s (or Ã¢â¬Å"Dr DeathÃ¢â¬ as the media have dubbed him) in the USA. Dr. Kevorkian, a retired pathologist, assisted over forty people to commit suicide in recent years in circumstances which were somewhat removed from regular medical practice. These people travelled to Kevorkian from all over the USA to seek his assistance in suicide. He assisted them, sometimes by attaching them, in the back of his rusting Volkswagen van, to his suicide machine, which injected them with lethal drugs when they activated it. Despite being prosecuted for assisted suicide on several occasions, Kevorkian escaped conviction and continued his personal campaign for relaxation of the law in his peculiar way. It was only when he moved from assistance in suicide to euthanasia that he was finally convicted. He filmed himself administering a lethal injection, and the film helped secure his conviction for murder (Keown 2002, p. 31). Of course, his actions provoked discussion of the thin line separating passive euthanasia, which is legal in this country, and active euthanasia. Opponents of KevorkianÃ¢â¬â¢s actions state that he is practicing assisted suicide, which is illegal. Proponents of KevorkianÃ¢â¬â¢s actions argue that the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to control his or her medical treatment is sufficient justification for assisted suicide. Euthanasia is Not Ethical According to Somerville (2006), there are two major reasons why people should not allow euthanasia to be legalized. One is based on principle: it is wrong for one human to intentionally kill another (except in justified self-defense, or in the defense of others). The other reason is utilitarian: the harms and risks of legalizing euthanasia, to individuals in general and to society, far outweigh any benefits. While Mak, Elwyn Finlay (2006) reasoned that Ã¢â¬Å"most studies of euthanasia have been quantitative, focusing primarily on attitudes of healthcare professionals, relatives, and the publicÃ¢â¬ . Pain is usually identified as a major reason for requesting euthanasia; other influences included functional impairment, dependency, burden, social isolation, depression, hopelessness, and issues of control and autonomy. This is why, Mak, Elwyn Finlay (2006) thought that legalizing euthanasia is a Ã¢â¬Å"prematureÃ¢â¬ move when research evidence from the perspectives of those who desire euthanasia is not yet proven to be necessary. They said Ã¢â¬Å"more qualitative patient based studies are needed to broaden our understanding of patientsÃ¢â¬ . What needs to be done, they deemed, should be the Ã¢â¬Å"inclusion of medical humanities, experiential learning, and reflective practice into medical education should help ensure doctors have better communication skills and attitudesÃ¢â¬ . By examining ways to improve care at all levels, healthcare professionals can eliminate the side effects of poor end of life care, then euthanasia would not be needed anymore. In 1988, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a statement on its take about patient-assisted suicide when a gynecology resident agreed to conduct assisted suicide to a young woman, dying of cancer, whom he has never seen before. Horrified by her severe distress, and proceeding alone without consultation with anyone, the doctor gives her a lethal injection of morphine. The publishing of this gynecology residentÃ¢â¬â¢s letter caused media hype and was featured in the previous issue in JAMA, where it was titled as Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Over DebbieÃ¢â¬ (1988). This is how the JAMA took its position regarding the matter: 1. ) On his own admission, the resident appears to have committed a felony: premeditated murder. Direct intentional homicide is a felony in all American jurisdictions, for which the plea of merciful motive is no excuse. That the homicide was clearly intentional is confirmed by the residents act of unrepentant publication. Law aside, the physician behaved altogether in a scandalously unprofessional and unethical manner. He did not know the patient: he had never seen her before, he did not study her chart, he did not converse with her or her family. He never spoke to her physician. He took as an unambiguous command her only words to him, Lets get this over with: he did not bother finding out what precisely she meant or whether she meant it wholeheartedly. He did not consider alternative ways of bringing her relief or comfort; instead of comfort, he gave her death. This is no humane and thoughtful physician succumbing with fear and trembling to the pressures and well-considered wishes of a patient well known to him, for whom there was truly no other recourse. This is, by his own account, an impulsive yet cold technician, arrogantly masquerading as a knight of compassion and humanity. (Indeed, so cavalier is the report and so cold-blooded the behavior, it strains our credulity to think that the story is true. ) Law and professional manner both aside, the resident violated one of the first and most hallowed canons of the medical ethic: doctors must not kill. Generations of physicians and commentators on medical ethics have underscored and held fast to the distinction between ceasing useless treatments (or allowing to die) and active, willful taking of life; at least since the Oath of Hippocrates, Western medicine has regarded the killing of patients, even on request, as a profound violation of the deepest meaning of the medical vocation. The Judicial Council of the American Medical Association in 1986, in an opinion regarding treatment of dying patients, affirmed the principle that a physician Ã¢â¬Å"should not intentionally cause death. Ã¢â¬ Neither legal tolerance nor the best bedside manner can ever make medical killing medically ethical (Baird Rosenbaum 1989, p. 26). Indeed, the laws of most nations and the codes of medical and research ethics from the Hippocratic Oath to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s major professional codes strictly prohibit VAE (and all forms of merciful hastened death), even if a patient has a good reason for wanting to die. Although courts have often defended the rights of patients in cases of passive euthanasia, courts have rarely allowed any form of what they judged to be VAE. Those who defend laws and medical traditions opposed to VAE often appeal to either (1) professional-role obligations that prohibit killing or (2) the social consequences that would result from changing these traditions. The first argument is straightforward: killing patients is inconsistent with the roles of nursing, care-giving, and healing. The second argument is more complex and has been at the center of many discussions. This argument is referred to as the wedge argument or the slippery slope argument, and proceeds roughly as follows: although particular acts of active termination of life are sometimes morally justified, the social consequences of sanctioning such practices of killing would run serious risks of abuse and misuse and, on balance, would cause more harm than benefit. The argument is not that these negative consequences will occur immediately, but that they will grow incrementally over time, with an ever-increasing risk of unjustified termination (Dworkin, Frey Bok, 1998). Refusal of Treatment When a patient refuses treatment, the physician is faced with a great dilemma. Doctors maintain that if the patient does not want treatment, physicians do not have a duty to start it. Once treatment is started, however, physicians have a duty to continue it if discontinuing it would lead to the patients death. They are not required to force a patient to go on a respirator if the patient refuses, but once the patient has gone on the respirator, doctors have a duty to keep him on it, even contrary to the patients wishes, if taking him off would result in his death. Suffice it here to point out one important limit: a doctor is not ethically bound to assist a refusal of treatment which is suicidal, that is, made not because the treatment is futile or excessively burdensome but in order to hasten death (Keown, 2002, p. 253). Actual suicide has been a felony in England in the past but today, suicide has been decriminalized in most part of the world. Attempting to take ones own life, however, remains criminal in some jurisdictions. In these as well as in those states where it is not a crime, the state has intervened in some cases to order life-sustaining treatment in the face of objection by a competent adult. The most widely cited case in which this was done is John F. Kennedy Memorial Hospital v. Heston (1971), where a twenty-two-year-old unmarried woman refused a blood transfusion because she was a JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s Witness. She was forced to have one anyway on the theory that there is no difference between passively submitting to death and actively seeking it. The state regards both as attempts at self-destruction and may prevent them. Since this case, however, the trend of cases has been away from this reasoning and toward subordinating the states interest in the prevention of suicide to the rights of patients to forgo or have withdrawn life-sustaining treatment (Berger 1995, p. 20). However, when the patient is terminal and death is imminent, no treatment is medically indicated, and the competent patientÃ¢â¬â¢s rightful refusal of treatment does not conflict with the health providerÃ¢â¬â¢s form of beneficence. There may be an emotional problem in admitting defeat, but there should be no ethical problem. It should be noted that, although the patient may not be competent at the end, refusal of treatment may be accomplished through a living will or a surrogate, especially through a surrogate who has durable power of attorney for health matters. In the case when the patient is terminal but death is not imminent, for example when the disease or injury progresses slowly, and granted the consent of the patient or surrogate, it appears ethical to omit treatment on the ground that nothing can be accomplished in thwarting the progress of the disease. But it is not ethical to omit care, since human dignity is to be respected. To solve this dilemma, the AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (1996) takes a clear stand on the issue: E-2. 20 Even if the patient is not terminally ill or permanently unconscious, it is not unethical to discontinue all means of life-sustaining medical treatment in accordance with a proper substituted judgment or best interests analysis. The treatments include artificially supplied respiration, nutrition, or hydration. In its recent opposition to physician-assisted suicide, the AMA has strongly endorsed a program to educate physicians to the appropriateness of switching from therapeutic treatment to palliative care. The group has gone from a tentative, negative position (Ã¢â¬Å"not unethicalÃ¢â¬ ) to a much stronger positive stand (AMA, 1996). On the other hand, we should also consider the reasoning behind the ethical correctness of not beginning or of stopping treatment in the case of the consenting patient who is terminally ill. First, the health care provider has no obligation to prolong dying merely for the sake of prolonging it. That is, it makes no sense to prolong life when the true result is the prolongation of the dying process. Furthermore, when treatment is only prolonging the agony of the patient, its continuation is unethical as an insult to human dignity (Cahill, 1977). In such cases, the health care provider would be ethically justified in discontinuing treatment, except when the patient insists on treatment. Even in this case, however, there can be exceptions. When there is a severe shortage of medical resources, the physician might be justified in stopping nonindicated treatment even over the protests of the patient. We say Ã¢â¬Å"might be justified,Ã¢â¬ since justification would depend, among other things, on a new social consensus about the duties of health care professionals and on a reasonable certainty that a shortage exists. There are also problems in discontinuing treatment when the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s surrogate(s) objects. It should be noted that cessation of life-sustaining treatment does not always bring about a swift and painless death, even though it may speed up the process of dying. For example, if kidney dialysis is discontinued, the person remains conscious and suffers vomiting, internal hemorrhage, and convulsions. The removal of a respirator does not lead to death immediately, and the patient suffers the pain and panic of suffocation. The obligation to care for the patient demands that every ethical effort be made to alleviate these sufferings with drugs and other methods that will not prolong life. Much recent research suggests that physicians are particularly deficient in their willingness and ability to provide adequate pain palliation for dying patients (SUPPORT, 1995). This could be one of the main concerns that drive the interest in physician-assisted suicide. Beyond this, when such pain relief is not possible for the patient, or when the harm is not the pain, but the insult to dignity, there arises the difficult problem of actively cooperating in the suicide of the patient. Religious Issues Several religions have a negative take on any form of suicide. Those who oppose active euthanasia on religious grounds, the basic concern seems to be the view that our lives are not ours but gifts from God. In this view, humans hold their lives as a trust. If this is true, then we are bound to hold not only the lives of others inviolate but also our own, since to take our life is to destroy what belongs to God. For Christians, in Exodus 34:7 and Daniel 13:53, scriptures taken from the Old Testament, the doctrine of the sanctity of life principle is upheld, except in rare instances of self defense. Judeo-Christian precepts generally condemn active euthanasia in any form, but allow some forms of passive euthanasia. The difference is that of omission and commission: While the Judeo-Christian philosophy might tolerate the allowance of death, acts that permit death, it draws the line in regard to acts that cause death. For Buddhists, they perceive it as an involvement of the intentional taking of life. This is why euthanasia is contrary to basic Buddhist ethical teachings because it violates the first of the Five Precepts. It is also contrary to the more general moral principle of ahimsa. This conclusion applies to both the active and passive forms of the practice, even when accompanied by a compassionate motivation with the end of avoiding suffering. The term Ã¢â¬ËeuthanasiaÃ¢â¬â¢ has no direct equivalent in canonical Buddhist languages. Euthanasia as an ethical issue is not explicitly discussed in canonical or commentarial sources, and no clear cases of euthanasia are reported. However, there are canonical cases of suicide and attempted suicide which have a bearing on the issue. One concerns the monastic precept against taking life, the third of the four parajika-dharmas, which was introduced by the Buddha when a group of monks became disenchanted with life and began to kill themselves, some dying by their own hand and others with the aid of an intermediary. The Buddha intervened to prevent this, thus apparently introducing a prohibition on voluntary euthanasia. In other situations where monks in great pain contemplated suicide they are encouraged to turn their thoughts away from this and to use their experience as a means to developing insight into the nature of suffering and impermanence (anitya) (Dictionary of Buddhism, 2003). Nonreligious arguments against active euthanasia usually follow a slippery slope or wedge line of reasoning. In some ways the arguments recall the parable of the camel who pleaded with his owner to be allowed to put his nose into the tent to keep it warm against the cold desert night. Once the nose was allowed, other adjustments were requested, and the owner found himself sleeping with his camel. Is there something so persuasive about putting others to death that, if allowed, would become gross and commonplace? The Nazi Ã¢â¬Å"final solution,Ã¢â¬ which brought about the death of millions of Jews, gypsies, and other eastern Europeans, could be traced to compulsory euthanasia legislation that, at the time of its enactment, included only mental cases, monstrosities, and incurables who were a burden of the state. Using the Nazi experience as a guide, critics of active euthanasia do see some seductiveness to killing that humans do not seem able to handle. Perhaps Sigmund Freud (1925) was right as he wrote: What no human soul desires there is no need to prohibit; it is automatically excluded. The very emphasis of the commandment Ã¢â¬Å"Thou shalt not killÃ¢â¬ makes it certain that we spring from an endless ancestry of murderers, with whom the lust for killing was in the blood, as possibly it is to this day with ourselves. The religious take on euthanasia often focus on the sanctity/inviolability of life. In Western thought, the development of the principle has owed much to the Judaeo-Christian tradition. That traditionÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine of the sanctity of life holds that human life is created in the image of God and is, therefore, possessed of an intrinsic dignity which entitles it to protection from unjust attack. With or without this theological underpinning, the doctrine that human life possesses an intrinsic dignity grounds the principle that one must never intentionally kill an innocent human being. The right to life is essentially a right not to be intentionally killed (Keown, 2002, p. 40).
Friday, September 20, 2019
Harley Davidson Motor Company Strategy Analysis INTRODUCTION This report aims to evaluate the strategic options available to the Harley Davidson organization. Harley Davidson Inc. has two operational segments, motorcycle and financing. Harley Davidson Financial Services (HDFS) offers loans, cycle insurance and protection plans to meet the needs of their owners, whilst the motorcycle segment designs, produces and markets primarily heavyweight touring, custom and performance motorcycles. It also manufactures motorcycle parts and accessories, gear and apparel. The company is the only major American producer of motorcycles and operates globally, with sales mostly in North America, Europe, Asia/Pacific and Latin America. Although in the past the company has experienced growth and continued success, attributed to its brand loyalty, in 2009 Harley Davidson (H-D) had to shut down and consolidate factories due to the effects of the recession and the fall of the US housing market. Strategic options can only be developed after the companys strategic position is known. Thus the first section of the report uses tools and concepts to determine H-D strategic position. In light of the companys strategic position strategic options are then formulated; this is presented in section 2. The third section of the report then uses the success criteria model presented by Johnson, Scholes and Whittington in corporate strategy, as a basis to evaluate the strategic options presented and recommendations are made. THE STRATEGIC POSITION OF HARLEY DAVIDSON INC. This section of the report is concerned with understanding the strategic position of Harley Davidson Inc. in an attempt to formulate strategic options for the company. It first identifies the changes that are occurring in the environment and how these changes affect H-D and its business activities and second the resource strength and capabilities of H-D. 1.1 The Environment In order to understand the environment which H-D operates in the following frameworks are used with the aim of helping to identify key issues and challenges and ways of coping with complexity and change. 1.1.1 Pestle Analysis In 2009 H-D stood to gain from the Economic Stimulus Package, passed into legislation by the Barack Obama Administration. The federal stimulus package gives taxpayers breaks if they purchase a new car, light truck, RV, or motorcycle. In addition, Coachman industries also a manufacturer of leisure vehicles and a competitor of H-D was eliminated from the New York Stock Exchange.(Wachter 2009). According to the Datamonitor report: The motorcycle industry segment has had economic growth for the past three years, and has only recently been experiencing decline. In 2007 it declined 2.3%, yet is forecasted to recover 4.3% by 2012. An economic factor in favorÃ of H-D, despite this decline, is that the U.S. industry generated total revenues of $10.2 billion in 2007, of which 98.8% were of motorcycles (not scooters, minibikes, etc.). Furthermore, within the U.S. economy H-D holds the majority of motorcycle sales. Therefore, even while industry growth is declining, H-D sales and other motorcycle sales are still continuing to increase. The Motorcyclye Industry Council (MIC) discloses that leisure product industries are facing steep decline however the motorcycle segment though declining ,is not doing so at a steep rate. Tim Buche, President of the MIC says Overall motorcycle sales were down 7.2%, not nearly as sharp a decline as many other consumer products in todays economy (Wasef 2009). Socially H-D has a competitive edge which is owed to its customer base, strong brand loyalty and demographic trends such as the increse in female operators. This loyalty is indicated in the average age of H-D consumers. H-D average consumer buying age is 42 years old and increasing (Gauvin 2005). H-D aspires to increase its consumer demographics, however Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦although the younger generation below 35 years of age has posted the largest gains in ownership, the generation that is on the edge of the baby boomer segment will be the main catalyst of growth for the industry (Koncept 2007). One social factor that may negatively affect the sale of H-D motocycles is the stigma that has been attached to these leisure vehicles. Alot of people believe that motorcycles are dangerous and this belief is strengthened due to the high rate of motorcycle fatalities and crashes. H-D stands the chance of escaping this stigmatisation if the public views their bikes as cruisers and not speed bikes. Technologically H-D can take advantage of antilock brake systems. Antilock brakes could help riders avoid fatal crases according to a study done by the insurance industry. 1.1.2 Porters Five Forces Model Rivalry H-D operates within the Recreational Vehicles industry along with five other major competitors: Winnebago, Polaris, Thor, Arctic Cat and Marine Products, the top performers within the industry which holds 92% of the market share by volume with a market capitalization of 64.653 Billion of a total Industry of 7 Billion. Other firms in different industries that are direct product rivals include Honda Motor Company Limited, Yamaha Motor Co, Ltd., and Suzuki Motor Corporation (Appendix 1). The presence of these large multinational corporations with exceptionally high assets boosts the degree of rivalry within the industry. Because of the small number of material rivals, the markets revenue is shared between fewer firms and enhances the degree of rivalry for bottom line profit. This rivalry forces most competitors to try and diversify their business models through geographical expansion or vertical expansion, leading to interests and investments in a variety of other segments such as the automobile, watercraft, industrial and farming equipment areas. (Datamonitor 2004). Threat of Substitutes The Recreational Vehicle industry faces threats from the Automobile Industry, from public transportation options and bicycles. The threat is largely dependent on the indispensability of motorcycles and other lifestyle products to the end user.(Datamonitor 2008). In most developed countries, motorcycles are leisure items and are not a necessity and are therefore largely dispensable or substitutable by more practical items such as cars or more cost effective means of transportation such as bicycles. This lack of necessity increases the threat of substitutes and is one of the major reasons why the external market goes into decline during economic recession. Buyer Power Overall, buyer power is low due to sustainable competitive advantage of product differentiation which is impossible for other brand competitors to match. Supplier Power Large multinational corporations such as Harley-Davidson can receive materials from many different international suppliers and face low switching costs due to minimal product differentiation. This presence within the international market boosts Industry leaders power. Overall, supplier power is moderate. Threat of New Entrants Overall, this threat is moderate due to high set up costs, high brand recognition, customer loyalty and high research and development costs. 1.2 Resources Strength and Capabilities Organizational Resources H-D has a formal structure that works for the company: decentralized, expert teams and leadership circles that value employee input. Programs they use to plan, report and track inventory and production include their Supply Management Strategy system (SMS), Vibration Tech PdM technology systems, as well as their web-based H-D Distribution supplier network that provides vendors with a wealth of information about supply and demand within the company. Physical Resources The Harley Triangle provides a basis for tracking and monitoring the firms physical resources. Location and Sophistication of management and the expertise of manufacturing personnel and other employees is the key in accessing raw materials, procurement and upkeep related to manufacturing equipment. H-D plants are streamlined and well-maintained, which is a core resource for H-D. Technological Resources H-D has many technological resources: including many different brand name Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights which protect its reputation and image. Human Resources/Capital Trust, Knowledge, Managerial capabilities, as well as organizational culture are H-Ds most valuable human resources. The company culture, gives H-D a major competitive advantage. Employees and suppliers know their input is valued and take pride in their work. People involved are passionate about the brand and this adds invisible value to the company. Innovation Resources Employee and supplier, as well as managements ideas are huge resources for H-D, as these people know the business and know its potential. Since there are such a variety of inputs, H-Ds capacity to innovate and create/develop new product is not subject to stagnation or groupthink. However, H-D does try to stay true to its niche market, and this creates some boundaries for innovative ideas. Reputational Resources Reputation with customers, brand name, perceptions of product, and reputation with suppliers are all very beneficial to H-Ds operations, and keep customers loyal to the product. Interactions and relationships are stressed at H-D in order to ensure quality workmanship and mutually beneficial participation in all stages of production. CAPABILITIES Purposely Integrated Technological Resources H-D ensures that all processes and activities throughout its value chain are integrated using web based SMS systems, barcodes, and reports that enable its JIT inventory flow. This allows production to flow smoothly. Manufacturing H-Ds JIT inventory pull system means that it must have streamlined manufacturing abilities. H-D does this by ensuring quality inputs into its manufacturing plants, flow production methods, and well-maintained equipment. H-D manufacturing plants are capable of producing many different models and base their inventory off of customer pull demand, reducing costs around the board as well as inventory finished products that sit unsold in warehouses (of which H-D has very few). Distribution JIT inventory management needs good transportation flow logistics. H-D has the capability to reduce lead times and ensure pull delivery through its private fleet of trucks and contracts with distribution suppliers. STRATEGIC OPTIONS The identification of possible directions builds on an understanding of H-D strategic position. The adaptation of Ansoffs product/market matrix is used for identifying directions for strategic development. Development directions are the strategic options available to H-D in terms of products and market coverage taking into account the strategic capability of the company and the expectation of shareholders. (Johnson et al 2005). Figure2, the adaptation of Ansoffs product/market matrix summarizes the strategic options available to H-D. Figure 2. Strategy Development Directions Source: Johnson et al (2005) Exploring Corporate Strategy H-D can choose one or more of the following options: It can protect and build on its current position. It can develop new markets for its products. It H-D can also develop new products in new markets and It diversifies into new markets and develops new products. These options can be pursued through different development methods which are internal development, mergers and acquisitions and strategic alliances. The options chosen has to address the key issues and challenges faced by the H-D, the company must also satisfy stakeholders expectations but most important H-D must have the resources and capabilities to develop the options chosen. In other words the option must be suitable, acceptable and feasible (Johnson et al 2005). The H-D motorcycle has been an American icon since 1903. Harley has built one the most unique reputations within the American motorcycle business. The motorcycles have transformed into a lifestyle, rather than mere transportation. Utilizing the motorcycles image, H-D became a market for recreational vehicles; constituting a sense of freedom and leisure to transportation. Often complementary to other recreational vehicles, such as motor homes, boats and snowmobiles. H-D has taken advantage of their exceptional culture and has used it to create sales. However, regardless of Harleys reputation and heritage, an economic downturn has shown that Harley Davidson Inc. needs to restructure their market. Financial crisis has slowed consumer spending, ultimately leading to low sales motorcycles and recreational vehicles. Due to the economic conditions, H-Ds 2008 profit fell 30 percent, decreasing shipments by 8 percent. (Harley Davidson Annual 2009 Report). The demand for heavyweight motorcycles has dropped dramatically, not only in the US economy but also worldwide. A slow domestic economy forces one to direct a focus on international prospects to open future long-term opportunities. The American dream, associated with Harleys, needs to be changed to fit in other dynamic cultures to increase market size. Also, increasing market size will allow more investment in research and development to apply competitive advantages within the market. H-D already has an upper hand in terms of brand uniqueness and clearly stands out from the ordinary motorcycle. An already attractive product will allow RD to function at an optimal rate. Harley Davidson Inc. currently operates internationally and the demand in foreign countries has forced management to apply their leadership and marketing skills to international markets. The economic slump has forced H-D to restructure its international management team and outlook. More experience and expertise into a countrys culture and legal requirements are essential. A global management team needs to be comfortable and confident when operating with or in foreign countries. Understanding international business practices and ethics is a crucial quality when trying to expand. Harley needs to create country based teams that are determined to make wise cultural decisions. Closely executing legal dimensions, geographic barriers, cultural obstacles, and investments will positively position Harley Davidson Inc. for future prospects. Harley Davidson Inc.s former CEO stated, International markets are a great opportunity, we need to grow them to diversify our revenue base (Harley Davidson Inc. 2009). A new CEO has been appointed and is expected to bring global and manufacturing experience. Keith E. Wandell is well attuned to international sales as well as manufacturing experience. These two qualities are exactly what Harley Davidson needs in order to reconstruct their international markets. This could be a turning point for Harleys selling approach. Building manufacturing plants in bigger foreign markets will help relieve shipping expenses, taxes, tariffs, and will be able to accurately respond to the specialized demand. Starting manufacturing plants in other countries could create numerous job opportunities. Properly trained managers would provide a domestic leadership style that is optimally adjusted to the proper culture. Not only would this create more jobs for US management, but also generate more revenue for foreign economies as locals will be needed for production. Although a long term goal, the production of manufacturing plants would be a plausible and positive future management decision as markets expand over time. Many consumer behavior research studies indicate that consumers are very likely to purchase products that are offered as limited editions. One strategy H-D can use in order to foster growth is to release a limited edition motorcycle, co-created by consumers as part of the promotional mix. H-D can use this promotional strategy to get consumers involved, appeal to their desires for rarity, and increase sales. While H-D has released several limited edition motorcycles in the past, this promotion can be adapted into a new strategy. The new limited edition motorcycle would require the involvement of consumers to help co-create the product. H-Ds research and development department would design three different motorcycles and then they would be uploaded to the H-D website. Then, consumers would be able to log on and vote for their favorite motorcycle. The winning motorcycle would then go into limited production. Those who voted would have first priority to purchase the motorcycle. Owners would then get an all-inclusive trip to the H-D Sturgis Rally. This promotion would be relatively inexpensive, yet highly effective. The designers could design the motorcycles in a way that reuses as many existing parts as possible, while still creating a unique style. This design process would lower production costs for the limited edition motorcycle. A limited edition motorcycle release of this nature would be an effective strategy because consumers are flocking to brands that are playing hard to get. Now more than ever, rarity is important for the high-end luxury sector, affluent 30-40 year olds, baby boomers, generation X and Y, and creative class consumers. This trend has shown that successful selling involves building a niche market rather than appealing to the masses. The world is becoming saturated with products that are very similar to each other, and the quest for rarity has been driven by the feeling that certain products will help us to stand apart from the masses. A limited edition H-D motorcycle is the perfect way for consumers to do just that. H-D is not new to the limited edition market scheme- the strategy just needs to be adjusted to todays consumer. One of H-Ds previously successful limited edition motorcycles is the 50th Anniversary Nightster. This model was popular because it made people want what they couldnt have. This model was embellished with a gold anniversary emblem and the year 1957 embroidered on the seat. The motorcycle also was aligned with the traditional masculinity of H-D, including the traditional colors, chrome pipes, and rugged-look. Only 2000 of these were manufactured and they retailed at only $10,000- now thats buzz-worthy. Even H-D representatives say they dont know of a single dealership with one in stock. (Harley Davidson Inc 2009). Even in the declining economy, H-D can still grow their company by altering their promotional mix. H-D can create hype and buzz by releasing a limited edition motorcycle, co-created by consumers. Consumer behavior research shows that consumers respond positively to product campaigns focused on rarity and scarcity. The buzz created due to this product release will help to increase brand awareness, and more importantly, brand resonance. These two factors ultimately result in more sales for the company. RECOMMENDATIONS There are many strategic options available to H-D however the choice made should be one that the company can pursue with existing resources and one that is line with the companys vision and mission. H-D should protect and build on their current position through consolidation and market penetration. Consolidation is where organizations protect and strengthen their position in their current markets with current products. Market penetration, is where an organization gains market share. (Johnson et al 2005). Appendix 1 pages 5 and 6 shows that H-D used this strategy they consolidated some of their operations so as to adjust cost structures and invested in their brand as a means of market penetration. Appendix 1 page 7 also states that H-D plans to add 100 to 150 dealer points through 2014. This is a good strategic option for the future but H-D should pursue this only after they have regained market share, reason being so that the company would have enough resources, especially financial resources to successfully pursue this option. Product development and market development as discussed above are also good options but should not be pursued by H-D at this point in time as these options require extensive resources and investment. Whilst new products may be vital to the future of the organization, the process of creating a broad product line is expensive, risky and potentially unprofitable. (Johnson et al 2005).H-D should use all their available resources to develop the company internally and focus on their brand. (as they are presently doing; Appendix 1 page 6) CONCLUSION H-D has a strong foundation and a uniquely powerful brand however this was not enough to allow the company to escape the problems associated with the recent economic downturn. H-D has to pursue strategies that will enable them to sustain growth and market share to endure economic hard times and to keep away competitors. The company has laid down their business strategy quite clearly in their 2009 annual report (See Appendix page 6) and this is an excellent start to do achieving this. If the company can turnaround itself around from the verge of bankruptcy in the 1980s then with the right tangible and intangible resources, current technology and the knowledge of past strategies used Harley Davidson can become the leader in the motorcycle industry internationally. REFERENCES Datamonitor (2007) Motorcycles in the United States: Industry Profile. [Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=6hid=115sid=60f53058-dbd4-402c-8546-03baa6899d4a%40sessionmgr107. [Accessed: 5th March, 2011]. Gauvin, T (2005) Harley Davidson. [Online] Available at: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:lVbpsaLDfmAJ:perleybrook.umfk.maine.edu/slides/spring%25202005/bus411/harley%2520Davidson.ppt+harley+davidson+external+analysishl=enct=clnkcd=2gl=us. [Accessed: 5th March, 2011]. Harley-Davidson Inc (2009) 2009 Annual Report. [Online] Available at: http://www.harley-davidson.com/en_US/Content/Pages/Student_Center/student-center.html?locale=en_USbmLocale=en_US#annualreport [Accessed: 27th February, 2011]. Harley-Davidson Inc (2009) Harley-Davidson Reports 2008 Results, Plans Lower 2009 Shipments and Unveils Strategy for Current Environment. [Online] Available at: http://www.harley-davidson.com/wcm/Content/Pages/HD_News/Company/newsarticle.jsp?locale=en_USarticleLink=News/0375_press_release.hdnewsnewsYear=2009history=news [Accessed: 27th February, 2011]. Johnson, Gerry, Scholes, Kevan and Whittington, Richard (2005) Exploring Corporate Strategy. Seventh Edition. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education. Print ISBN 0 273 68734 4. Koncept, A (2008) Recreational Vehicle Market: Aging Baby Boomers to Fuel Growth. [Online] Available at: http://www.konceptanalytics.com/. [Accessed: 27th February, 2011]. Wasef, B (2009) Motorcycle Industry Council Reports Drop in Motorcycle Sales, Upswing for Scooters and Dual-Purposes. [Online] Available at: http: //motorcycles.about.com/b/2009/02/06/motorcycle-industry-council-reports-drop-in-motorcycle-sales-upswing-for-scooters-and-dual-purposes.htm. [Accessed: 25th February, 2011]. Wachter, D (2009) Motorcyclists Reap Benefits from the Stimulus Package. [Online] Available at:http://www.tricities.com/tri/news/local/article/motorcyclists_reap_benefits_from_the_stimulus_package/20722/. [Accessed: 3rd March, 2011].
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Ghost in Kenneth Brannagh's Hamlet William Shakespeare's Hamlet is a drama which has been renound for its content and depiction of characters. Over the years, it has gone through many variations of interpretations and criticisms. One such criticism is the nature of the ghost who takes the form of Hamlet's dead father. At first glance, it may be sufficient to accept the ghost as the spirit of Hamlet's dead father who returns to the land of the living in order to have his son avenge his murder. However, looking deeper into the text, several unignorable signs become visible which lead us to see that the ghost is actually the devil in disguise. Kenneth Brannagh's 1997 production of Hamlet brilliantly portrays these signs of evil and cynicism. The Devil had an agenda from the very beginning: to cause havoc in the royal family, leading to the downfall of the crown of Denmark. After King Hamlet's death, the Devil saw this as its perfect opportunity to begin the first stage of its plan. It was aware of Hamlet's hatred toward his uncle Claudius, who came between Hamlet and his rightful seat on the throne. It was aware of Hamlet's disgust with his mother's incestuous marriage to her brother-in-law. And it was aware of Hamlet's despair over losing his father who he dearly loved and admired. In Brannagh's film, we see Francisco (the guard outside the castle walls) startled by the ghost, who motions for his sword. This is the second time the ghost has appeared and the guards are both afraid and confused. They then call upon Horatio, Hamlet's dear friend to witness the vision to confirm their fears. When Horatio arrived, the ghost appeared once again in "that fair and warlike form / In which the majesty of buried Denmark / Did ... ...er Claudius. Hamlet goes mad, which is pains Ophelia. Hamlet accidentally kills Polonius out of rage, then Ophelia dies after going mad due to the madness of Hamlet and the death of her father. Laretes comes home to find his father dead, later finding out his sister dead, then conspires a plot with Claudius to kill Hamlet. This dual ends in the deaths of Claudius, Larates, Gertrude, Hamlet, and later we find out that Rozencranz and Guildenstern have been killed. The death of King Hamlet began a chain reaction which inevitably leads to the downfall of the royal family of Denmark. The Devil has succeeded in its plan by skillfully choosing Hamlet to carry out its dirty work. Works Cited Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. In The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Carl E. Bain, Jerome Beaty, and J. Paul Hunter. W.W. Norton & Company: New York. 1995. (1306-1404).
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Stephen Crane's "The Open Boat" Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"None of them knew the color of the sky.Ã¢â¬ This first sentence in Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Open BoatÃ¢â¬ implies the overall relationship between the individual and nature. This sentence also implies the limitations of anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. The men in the boat concentrate so much on the danger they are in, that they are oblivious and unaware to everything else; in other words, maybe lacking experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The Open BoatÃ¢â¬ begins with a description of four men aboard a small boat on a rough sea. The central theme of this story is about confronting Nature itself. Ã¢â¬Å"The Open Boat" is Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s account from an outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view of the two days spent in a small boat. The correspondent is autobiographical in nature; Stephen Crane was shipwrecked off the coast of Florida while working as a war correspondent. The correspondent in Ã¢â¬Å"The Open BoatÃ¢â¬ portrays the author. Mainly through the corres pondent, Crane shows the power of nature and how one manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to survive ultimately depends on fate. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The character of the correspondent learns that the principles of Nature is unpredictable by accident or by fate just as life itself is unpredictable. Stephen Crane pays special attention to the correspondent, who shares the painful chore of rowing the boat with the strong oiler. While rowing, he contemplates his situation and the part that nature plays in it. All of the men seem to know they are helpless in the face of nature.their lives, at...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
All Quiet On the Western Front: Themes All Quiet on the Western Front is a graphic depiction of the horrors of war. In the short note before Chapter One, Remarque lets the reader know exactly what themes he intends. War is a savage and gratuitous evil, war is unnatural, and war is responsible for the destruction of an entire generation. Remarque is very clear on the strength of his themes, and uses graphic imagery to convey to the reader the physical and psychological impact that war has on humanity. But Remarque uses more than graphic description to support his themes. Remarque also utilizes a very defined nature motif, with the forces of nature constantly rebelling against the conflict it plays battleground to. With the Earth itself, the source of all things, supporting his themes, Remarque has a seemingly unbiased witness bearing testament to his observations. Remarque can use nature as the judge to condemn war, along with shocking imagery, so that his literature remains without a trace of nationalism, political ill will, or even personal feelings. It should be noted that the nature motif is carried consistently throughout the novel, and that it supports many of the author's lesser themes. For the purpose of portraying war as something terrible, though, the nature motif is expressed most dramatically in the following passages. These passages mark the three distinct stages of nature's condemnation of war: rebellion, perseverance, and erasure. The first passage occurs in Chapter Four when the troops are trucked out to the front to install stakes and wire. However, the narrator's squad is attacked unexpectedly by an English bombardment. With no visible enemy to fight, the soldiers are forced to take cover and live out the bombardment. In the process, the earth is shredded and blown asunder. It is during this melee that many of the companies' horses are wounded, and begin to bellow terribly. "It is unendurable. It is the moaning of the world, it is the martyred creation, wild with anguish, filled with terror, and groaning." The bombing subdues, but the bellowing continues. "The screaming of the beasts becomes louder. One can no longer distinguish whence in this now quiet silvery landscape it comes; ghostly, invisible, it is everywhere, between heaven and earth it rolls on immeasurably." Remarque is none too subtle in using the dying horses as a metaphor for the Earth's own anguish. As the men face a new horror, nature is revolting against the damage being done to it. Remarque will return to this usage of the nature motif, with war being anomalous and unnatural in the "natural" world.
I would like to know if you are interested in helping me write an article for the Woman day magazine. They have asked me to write an article for their magazine. I have written articles for them before on different topics mainly related to law stuff. I told them my choice was on incontinence in woman and using a vibrator. Also I would like to explain how a helper can work if you can get help from someone experienced. Let me know what you think about this idea, should I pitch this idea? We would be marked as unknown authors; therefore our names will not appear in the article. We can also set up an email account in order to help other women regarding this issue. They are so many women that have this problem and are looking for answers. I am glad that this information is finally coming out and it is not very soon. Men usually do not object to several things but women always have several questions than men do. I am just glad that a recent study is being done on this and around this time next year it will be published as journal article. The study that is being done is the use of vibrator by half of the women while the other half gets a helper. The first part of the study has proven that women who have a helper are 50 to 60 percent dryer than normal. The next part of the study shows that women are going to do the same but will add visiting a person like Debbie in Mequon; the findings should be this that a woman should have a helper and do treatment as Debbie recommends, should stay 60 to 80 percent dryer than just putting the vibrator in. This study is being done by Urology at Hopkins: Brady Urological Institute Incontinence one of the team member is Karen E. Boyle, M.D and those guys who helped me get the journal article from last email I sent you. This is cutting edge and I am so happy it is coming out Mary. Really let me know if you are interested in doing this; I love to work with you on this and get your thoughts. This is a copy of the letter from Karen Boyle. Kathy is using a vibrator and having a helper is her idea. I have the same problem and when I have to travel I see such a difference but with my helper I am staying so much dryer. This has always been so hard for women to talk about but we have needs similar to men. What has bothered me for years, Kathy, is that men can just go to the Walgreen but we have to go to one of those stores so we have to feel dirty. This is because it is not like the guyÃ¢â¬â¢s penis since using a vibrator causes contractions and relaxation around the bladder and uterus. But moving the vibrator in and out make these contraction stronger, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why to have a helper is better because they can feel if you are having these contractions and act accordingly. Pulling it out once in a while during this exercise will also make the contractions stronger. I am glad that am going to write the article for that magazine if needed. [Please email or leave a note at front desk for me. Why intercourse doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work is because the guyÃ¢â¬â¢s penis doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t vibrate?] Once again Mary if you believe you can help me for this cause then do let me know and then we can start writing idea together. I know how is it much better to get help form you. Just let me know if youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Reason: The reason I did this project was because I am absolutely fascinated by cockroaches. I think they are really interesting. It also makes me happy that IÃ¢â¬â¢m the only person I know of who is not scared of cockroaches. We have cockroaches that will come into our house to escape from the cold outside, so I thought, why not get rid of some of them? But I had to know what kind of bait to put out for them in order to accomplish this. So that is how I came up with this. Hypothesis: If the peanut butter, the butter, the cheese, and the bread are tested, then the butter will attract the most cockroaches. If the peanut butter, the butter, the cheese, and the bread are tested, then the bread will attract the least amount of cockroaches. Experiment What I did: Well, first I put four 4 by 10 sticky traps on our counter. Then, I got out some butter, some peanut butter, some bread, and some cheese out. After that, I got a tablespoon and scooped the substances out. I put the tablespoon of each substance on its own sticky trap. The butter on one, the peanut butter on another, and so on and so forth. Then I turned off the light and went to bed. When I got up, I got my data book out and went out to our counters. When I turned on the light, I counted how many cockroaches were on each sticky trap and I recorded my results. I tested this out ten times, and each time I recorded my results. Discussion Comparing: It was very interesting because according to my research, cockroaches like moist substances that they can easily pick up. But instead of going for the moist substances I put out, they went for the dry ones! Another thing I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look at before was the temperature. The temperature really affected my results. According to my research, cockroaches can be seen the most inside houses when it is cold outside. And my results proved that it was true. When I did my project, it showed that as the temperature got colder, more and more cockroaches got stuck on the sticky trap. Uncontrolled Events: I think one uncontrolled event was the temperature. The temperature fell while I was doing my project. Usually, cockroaches will come indoors to escape from the cold outdoors. More cockroaches came in when the temperature dropped. Another thing I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t control would be the exact place I put the sticky traps. I mean, I did put them on the counter, but I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t put them all in the exact same place. What if a cockroach was just making his way across the counters when he got stuck on the sticky trap? What I would have done differently: If I had to do my project again, I would add in the temperatures of the night as well, because it really does affect my results. Either that, or I would make sure the temperature was pretty much the same each night. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t around the temperature that I wanted, I would wait for the next night. I would also have added more bait to test because four traps really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that much. Other Experiments that can be done: Some other experiments that can be done would be like, how the temperature effects on how active the cockroaches are, or what traps trap cockroaches best. You could also see if cockroaches are more active at night or in the daytime. According to my research though, cockroaches like to come out at night, while itÃ¢â¬â¢s still dark out, because to them, light means that somebody is there and can hurt them. But when itÃ¢â¬â¢s dark out, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the signal that everybody is asleep. One last test somebody could do, would be how long a cockroach could survive without food or water. Would it be affected if they had been fed a lot before the experiment started? What if they had only been fed a little bit before the experiment started? Conclusion Results: My results showed that the roaches went for the bread and cheese more than the butter and peanut butter, so my hypothesis was wrong. Each night, hardly any cockroaches went for the butter and peanut butter. They would mostly all go to the bread and cheese.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Traced to this seemingly innocuous start, more Han 500,000 Sirs are estimated to exist in the world today. Jolliness's first approach to international expansion came with the hiring of an outsider, Tony Kitchener. Mr.. Kitcheners' aggressive marketing approach strategy, (planting the flag, as it was known) was Just what the company needed in order to bring brand recognition as well as attract future sales. The strategy encompassed expanding to markets with little competition; thereby, becoming a pioneer in that local market. After Mr.. Kitchener first took over the international division, he revamped it immediately.One major move of this overhaul was to fill key staff sections from personnel hired from outside of the corporation and even outside of the Philippines. He noted difficulties hiring more internal recruits because of Philippine managers' resistance to giving up employees and reluctance for Joining an upstart division. Tensions would soon arise due to relations with the Phil ippine- based operations. Some of these early issues may have been attributed to Jolliness's vertical organizational structure where ETC was the chief executive officer with all divisions reporting directly to him.The vertical organization structure ensured Mr.. Caution ad final say on all endeavors but may have led to efficiency issues. Collaboration between employees and managers on company processes such as recipe customization and new market expansion may be stifled in a vertical organization as collaboration tends to occur in a vacuum. Another type of structure that may have proven more robust is the horizontal structure as employees are encouraged to seek solutions and improvements on their own.As a result, the International Division staff reported this Philippine organization bureaucratic and slow-moving (Bartlett, 2011, p. 47). 2. Analysis and Evaluation A. Jolliness's Successful Business Model (#1) There were several contributing factors in Jolliness's rise to a dominant po sition in the Philippines fast food market. Jollied was able to concentrate resources on growth by financing their company from within. This internal growth, absent of debt or the interest of such debt allowed for a dominant position within the industry as well as allowed for suitable location and franchise choice.Additionally, the family demonstrated positive business intellect by hiring proficient supervisors the market. With the late entry of McDonald's into the Philippines market, as well as he aforementioned business knowledge of the Tan family, Jollied was a formidable competitor with an establish presence within the market well on the way to the ability of global expansion. (#1) Jollied continued to use cultural proximity to their advantage and defended their market share with the entry of McDonald's to the Philippines market in 1981.McDonald's, representing an enormous competitive threat with untouchable resource and reputable experience, Jollied relied on their expertise fo r local preferences to cement their continued dominate position. Even with the lower price point, McDonald's traditional menu choices were viewed as unpalatable to the local customer base, causing slower growth for the multinational company then first forecasted. However, by early 1983, McDonald's was able to obtain 27% of the fast food market share with the unexpected of the Big Mac.Jollied Just 5% ahead in market share then McDonald's quickly responded to the Big Mac challenge with the Champ. Jollied felt the bigger, spicier burger would better entice the Filipino preferred flavor for food; as the market research has suggested. The intended triumph of the Champ however was short lived as by late 1983, political hostility awards foreign investors from the backlash of the assassination of a political leader caused economic breakdown. This breakdown caused McDonald's and other foreign investors to slow their intended growth.Jollied preserved its positive perception within the communi ty throughout the downward turn in the economy, continuing to hone their menu choices; all geared towards the local tastes. By 1984, the fascination with McDonald was soon diminishing. At the economic up rise after 1986, McDonald's soon gasped at the growth of Jollied in their absence, now encompassing 31 stores with principal market share. B. Jolliness's First International Division (#2) According to world market reports published by IBIS World, the world's largest independent publisher of U. S. Industry research, the food service sub-sector's total revenue was about $1. 86 trillion in 2012. The global fast-food restaurants industry was estimated to take account for 38% of that revenue which was an annual increase of 3. 2% from the previous year. However, with developing nations accounting for about 83% of total global industry the industry Ã¢â¬Å"is approaching saturation levels in some developed countries due to an oversupply of fast food businesses and extensive franchising, whi ch is contributing to weaker revenue growth and demand in these industriesÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 2012).Therefore growth in developing nations is essential for continued growth in the industry. (#2) Most experts agree that fast food business plans need to resolve around one thing and that is making money. This focus is achieved by focusing on specific areas of the business plan that pertain to the following: having a targeted initial spending plan, a narrow focus on what the company does well, growth as a result of expanding the menu for sales, marketing expansion, and excellent customer service to promote loyalty (Walter, 2010).Jollied succeeded in the Philippines by excelling in each and every one of these areas while focusing on traditional Filipino culture, by serving to the unique tastes of the Filipino consumer. This strategy has allowed the company to grab approximately 65% of the market share and become the unquestionable leader competition, most notably McDonald's, since many of th e large corporations largely export a standardized menu to the various consumers of the world. #2) Success in the developing nation the Republic of the Philippines has allowed the Jollied food company the opportunity to expand into other Asian countries to include Singapore, Taiwan, Brunet, and Indonesia. Jollied made its first attempted entry abroad in 1985, with its expansion into the Singapore market through a partnership consisting of Jollied, the local manager, and investors. The partnering was ultimately unsuccessful due to an eventual lack of trust between Jollied and the local manager.This lack of trust began when the corporate investors visited to check the local stores Ã¢â¬Å"quality, cleanliness, and efficiency in operationsÃ¢â¬ and were denied entry by the local store managers (Bartlett, 2011). This led Jollied to revoke the franchise agreement and shut down the Singapore store in 1986. Jolliness's second entry into business abroad occurred with expansion into the Tai wan market with a 50/50 Joint venture. Sales initially boomed, but low pedestrian traffic quickly led to decreasing revenues over time.Day-to-day management conflicts again surrounding trust, and an increase in property market rent, ultimately led to Jollied dissolving the joint venture in 1988. The lessons that can be learned from these first overseas expansions have been highlighted before by Forbes magazine, highlighted observations where to match your approach to your business model and purpose, do efficient homework as well as background research, know when to localize your product, be fully aware of your international brand, and ultimately choose the right partner to do business with.As Todd Rapper, the executive vice president of Multilingual worldwide sales stated, Ã¢â¬Å"a [local business partner] can eliminate overhead costs and risks and can be extremely helpfulÃ¢â¬ ¦ However, you lose a great deal of control when you employ a rep [and] that individual and company repres ents youÃ¢â¬ (Conner, 2012). (#2) Learning from the failures of the past, Jollied is now ambitiously trying to expand into the international market, with a company vision of becoming a global player on the world stage and obtaining a 50-50 split between domestic and international sales by 2020 (Staff, 2013).Through its use of strategic expansion efforts, Jollied hopes to continue to spread the Ã¢â¬Å"Joy of eating, and bringing the best of Filipino family experiences, everything from food to ambiance, to [the world]Ã¢â¬ . Therefore, when company president Tony Tan Caution (ETC) decided to expand Jollied into the international market in 1993, the big managerial question that arose as how to go about making a local Philippine company into a global brand similar to one of the major players of the international scene at that time such as, McDonald's. To answer this question ETC selected Mr..Kitchener to lead the company in this endeavor, and gave him autonomy in deciding how the co mpany's international operations division used its structure and resources. Mr.. Kitcheners effectiveness as the first head of Jolliness's international division will be evaluated based upon the results that were produced from his business philosophy and leadership style in the areas of revenue growth, cost efficiency, profitability, and market share. It must be noted that market share in itself is debatable as to whether or not it should be the accepted and valid metric of market leadership.As Tom Peters of the In-search-of- measured is not managed, and what is not well measured is not well managed. Ã¢â¬ Thus, this evaluation in determining Mr.. Kitcheners effectiveness will be based solely upon framing Mr.. Kitcheners management style, which incorporates the elements of context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs, and outcomes with his personal equines philosophy and professional business model beliefs. (#2) Before Mr.. Kitchener began to focus on Jolliness's external busines s environment, he decided to start internally with the company by ensuring his division would be separate from the Philippine branch.While the decision to separate the company's international branch from its domestic branch proved to be beneficial in achieving his short term goal of creating anonymity to readily make the business decisions he felt were necessary, largely his total commitment to this strategy negatively affecting his branch and the company as a whole by having the domestic ND international divisions operating on different visions and unaligned business objectives. Mr.. Kitchener began recruiting experienced personnel to his team who he thought would be able to help him achieve his goals for the company.However, whether intentional or not, his choices created the perception of Ã¢â¬Å"elitismÃ¢â¬ when Ã¢â¬Å"poachingÃ¢â¬ the individuals from within the company, and going Ã¢â¬Å"outside the houseÃ¢â¬ for other key team positions. He claimed that greater interna l recruiting had been constrained by two factors: resistance to staffing being poached, and lack of interest. Next, Mr.. Kitchener focused on changing Jolliness's business culture in order to make it look and act like a multinational, not like a local chain.After accomplishing the internal changes he deemed it necessary for Jollied to compete on a global stage. Mr.. Kitchener then focused on the company's external strategic thrust. He did this with the ultimate goal of increasing and building upon the success Jollied had experienced to becoming one of the world's top ten fast food brands by 2000. This was an ambitious goal that he had set for himself as well as the company. The completion of the goal set rested upon a business model consisting of woo main trains of thought, Ã¢â¬Å"targeting expectsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"planting the flagÃ¢â¬ .The expectation at the time was that by expanding the number of stores, the franchise could build Ã¢â¬Å"brand awarenessÃ¢â¬ which in turn wo uld positively affect sales revenue. Ongoing, market entry was accomplished by negotiating a franchise agreement through investment by the parent company. Responsibility for franchise establishment was then handed off to a Franchise Services Manager (FSML). Resources and expertise were provided as needed to start up and manage an offshore franchise until the local manager was able to then manage on their own.One innovation that Mr.. Kitchener implemented to help the transfer of responsibility be a smooth transition was to create a library of promotional photographs, rather than preparing new advertising materials for each new promotion. Mr.. Kitchener was not only concerned with helping the local managers establish the franchise for the company through strong initial support, but was also with the division maintaining proprietary control as well as each franchise maintaining company quality standards. #2) Flexibility to accommodate differences in customer tastes was deemed to be ess ential. Mr.. Kitchener and his team learned that Ã¢â¬Å"mass-based positioningÃ¢â¬ did not paces to the demands of the local market and after numerous market entry battles, the international team decided that other elements of Jolliness's Philippine business model needed to be modified in its franchise stores overseas. However, when it came to modifying the menus and the product itself tensions arose with the domestic side of Jolliness's operations, resulting in even less cooperation. #2) According to a research report done in the style of David Letterman top ten list, the top ten reasons for why business fail internationally are as follows: 1) Ã¢â¬Å"NationalitiesÃ¢â¬ , 2) Lack of resources and/or budget, 3) Spread resources too thin, 4) Corporate WHQL Control, 5) Inability to localize content, 6) Treat translation of press materials as an administrative task, 7) Unrealistic expectations, 8) Conducting International PR long distance, 9) Lack of spokespeople, and 10) No action behind the words (Hoffman, 2012). Mr.. Kitchener did an admirable Job in making sure he was nationalistic in his approach to the global market.His control over the international division, allowed him to localize the food products. He was guilty of reasons 3, 6, and 7 for Jolliness's failed attempt at international expansion. Having unrealistic expectations was his biggest mistake. In the end, this was the underlying reason for his failure to achieve the company's goals. Jolliness's international division grew rapidly. However, as operations grew, Mr.. Kitchener and his staff experienced problems with the underlying strategy of the division's international expansion plan.They found not all overseas Filipinos were guaranteed potential customers. They also soon found out that only by achieving a certain amount of sales could many of the franchises afford to advertise and build the brand awareness required to meet resource requirements that became constrained by the rapid expansion into new arrest. In addition the international division could not shift responsibility gradually to the franchisee and therefore had to continually bare the majority of responsibility associated that comes along with starting and maintaining new startups.They found that the local store managers were content to let the division do the day-to-day grunt work of everyday planning and routine operations (Bartlett, 2011). Ultimately, the increasing cost of supporting the widespread unprofitable activities, and the continuing friction between the domestic and international side of operations, was unsustainable for Jollied to be able to obtain the company's vision for the future. In 1997, Mr.. Kitchener was replaced with Noel Tinning as the new general manager, International Division, in the hope of creating and implementing a winning strategy for global expansion.Present day, according to Forbes magazine, Jollied was the world's fifth fastest growing restaurant company outside the United State s, earning $102 million and a sock increase of over last year's earnings. A large part of Jolliness's success is due to the development of market leading brands across numerous categories, with experts stating that Ã¢â¬Å"most competitors have single rand'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ Having multi-food concepts enables Jollied to capture a bigger chunk of the dining-out marketÃ¢â¬ (Staff, 2013). C. Noel Tension's strategy for three expansion options (#3) Mr..Tinning faced three huge opportunities for Jolliness's global expansion. First, he had to analyze the potential profitability of entering a small market in Papua New Guiana, where there's limited competition. Second, much consideration was needed over the further expansion regarding Hong Gong's Kowloon district, one of care much for the Jolliness's Philippines-based fast food model. Finally, a proposal to cackle the benefits in a U. S. Market by establishing restaurants there, starting in California, expanding quarterly. (#3) Expanding to Papua N ew Guiana brings both potential risks and benefits.The benefits of expanding to Papua include the lack of competition in the market. Papua has only one poorly managed, 3-store fast-food chain, according to Quality Assurance Manager, Gill Salvos (Bartlett, 2011, p. 51). Match the limited market, and the large population of 5 million, makes Papua a very enticing opportunity. Another benefit would be the offer from Mr.. Salvos to front the capital to launch the expansion. Additionally, suggesting co-locating with a major petroleum retailer, where there was a constant customer flow. The risks of expanding to Papua include concern about Government-Business relationships.There seems to be an issue with stability of rules, policies, and regulations. Businesses remain worried about the stability of the rules, instituted by the government. According to local analysis there's a perception of risk while doing business in Papua New Guiana. Another risk is political uncertainty. According to rep orts, during the asses, businesses in Papua experienced a great amount of instability because of frequent changes in overspent. This led to erratic and frequent changes in policies that a negative impact on the private sector (Holder, P. And Barker, P. , 2007). #3) Expanding current business further in Hong Kong is an exciting proposition, considering the potentially large market there. Mr.. Conation's brother-in-law saw instant success when he opened the first store in 1996 (Bartlett, 2011, p. 51). However, one issue with the Jollied Corporation is its narrowed marketÃ¢â¬ ¦ Targeted Filipino audience. The Hong Kong base relied on Filipinos living there to bring in enough business, which at stores close to major hubs where Filipinos gathered, worked out. The problem was with restaurants that were not in close proximity of these hubs; they had to rely on the local Chinese population.Other problems with the Hong Kong market included a rigid menu, which was slow to change, due to Joll iness's vertical organizational structure where all changes had to be staffed to leadership. The benefits of doing business in Hong Kong include low salaries and profits tax rates. Additionally, capital gains are not taxed. The country is bilingual, which would ease business communication, and assist with new staff training efforts. (#3) Challenging McDonald's in its home market is a daring, but potentially refutable endeavor. Mr..Tension's approach to expanding Jolliness's franchise to America could bring much respect for the rapidly expanding company. Just like opening a new franchise in Papua, and expanding operations in Hong Kong, there will be risks and benefits. The biggest riskÃ¢â¬ ¦ Known for its golden arches, McDonald's. However, McDonald's would not be the only major competitor facing Jollied. America is the birth place of fast food. Several other competitors such as Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KEF), and Pizza Hut had permeated the market as well. Concerns over increasing obesity rates in recent years, also came as concern when expanding to America.Policymakers are developing new regulations on restaurants in an effort to fight obesity. For example July 2008, Los Angels lawmakers banned the more than 500,000 residents (Anderson, 2006). The incredible amount of money Americans spend towards fast food is a definite plus to expansion consideration to the United States. Consumers spent about $110 billion on fast food in 2000, which increased from $6 billion in 1970 (Closer, 2001). The National Restaurant Association forecasts that fast food restaurants in the U. S. Will reach $142 billion in sales in 2006, a 5% increase over 2005 (Closer, 2001).Bottom line, fast food is big business in America. As a fall-back, the West coast has a significant Filipino community, and other ethnic groups which are attracted to Jolliness's menu. Finally, the strong interest from local investors and Mr.. Conation's willingness to crack this market make it an attra ctive investment. D. Noel Tension's way-ahead for Jolliness's international success (#4) Mr.. Noel Tinning, has some very difficult decisions to make for the international expansion of Jollied. Fortunately, he has a great team that is well- versed at conducting risk analysis assessments, and the training under Mr..Kitchener o work with the corporation's FSML to hammer out details of a franchise expansion. It's important to capture that Ã¢â¬Å"quick-winÃ¢â¬ when tackling any business endeavor. The quick-win in this situation would be to improve and expand upon existing markets in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has one very successful restaurant. Recruiting Chinese employees, and rotating them through the Central district restaurant to receive training, will assist in their success. Additionally, bringing in the new employees will assist in identifying/diversifying menus for local palettes. #4) To garner any kind of profit, Jollied would have to quickly add three to four tortes to be competi tive and cover costs. The GNP in both countries, per capita, is about the same at $2,500 (Bartlett, 2011, p. 51). In the Philippines there are over 900 restaurants serving 75 million people. The PANG population is 5 million people. Starting out with three to four stores, under Mr.. Salvo's capital, will be a good gauge as to whether the company attracts the local interest. The plan is for a Joint venture with local service stations.If the effort is equitable, further expansion from the three or four stores to 20 stores is a plausible business venture. #4) Supporting operations in a small remote market will require effective communication from the main hub to the forward operating location. To ensure success, the FSML will be imperative in developing the team and monitoring sales, customer traffic, and any supply hold-ups. To assist in attracting the local populace, managers should recruit team members from the host country. This will help with any language barriers, and could be an effective marketing strategy.Finally, give managers at the remote market greater flexibility to make decisions without having to use the vertical staffing process. Being able to respond quickly to local crisis, will empower managers, and ensure the new market doesn't miss a beat. (#4) One of the Ã¢â¬Å"Five Ifs,Ã¢â¬ is catering to customer needs. If Jollied wants to expand its opportunities in Hong Kong, it must customize to local tastes. One of McDonald's global operation attributes is the ability to adjust menu in accordance with local tastes, and even customs, such as its operations in India where it only offers a vegetarian menu.Developing less fatty menu alternatives will be attractive in the Hong Kong market, and may also work in the U. S. As well due to greater concerns Eng in building their confidence in the company. Finally, by baking foods instead of frying them, the company will be saving money. Frying is more expensive than baking because of the oil requirement and ad ditional gas/electricity it takes to heat the oil. Jollied would be catering to local palettes while saving money, by reducing it fried food menu items. #4) Understanding and properly managing cultural differences in the workplace, especially in foreign environments, is essential to business success. When domestic companies hire foreign professionals in an effort to enhance their competitiveness in international markets, a lack of understanding may arise which may lead to an atmosphere that is not conducive to the business environment. As is the case in this situation where Chinese workers were calling the Filipinos worker's discipline lax and their style arrogant; and the Filipinos saw the Chinese managers as uncommitted.To handle this problem Jollied should solicit outside help, a third party, that specializes in helping corporations manage cultural differences. Even though this may be an expensive proposition, it could be billed as a necessary start-up cost that was essential to the process of transitioning the franchise into a sustainable operation. Once implemented, the company would establish feedback options for the employees in order to gauge the effectiveness of the program.It would also see what steps could be taken to create a do-it-yourself mediation communication tool for each individual employee. This tool could be used whenever the need arose, to limit and diffuse future staffing conflicts. (#4) While at face value the Philippine to Asian to Hispanic entry strategy appears to be positive strategic plan. This being said, Jollied also must consider to the company as a whole. The extensive stretch in current resources and failing stores abroad could destroy even the most perfect strategic plan to enter the US market.Discounting the current failures within the company however, this entry plan could place Jollied in a unquestionable positive standing to enter the US market, Just as it succeeded in the US territory of Guam. The positive lessons learne d within the Guanine market can easily transfer into the US; within the area of San Francisco and San Diego, where the Filipino expects surpass those of others demographically, giving Jollied the perception and insight it requires to expand to Asian-Americans, hen acquire Hispanic traffic in order to broaden to other populace within chosen markets. #4) If chosen to enter the US markets it will be imperative for Jollied to control the expansion while supporting the existing locations. This control and support can be established, in the beginning, by transfer current Jollied management to the US market, as it has been done in the past. The careful selection of local franchises will be imperative to Jollied successful growth within the US market, as the consumer perception must be one of consistency in regards to price, selection and customer revive.The experienced management style will permit the local management to fully understand the culture of the company while Jollied management continues to take in the local culture; working together to build a solid foundation to grow from. While the initial foundation is critical, the ongoing support is never the less vital to the company's success, particularly in regards to gaining market share in the birthplace necessary prerequisite for all locations as well as ongoing training for not only the local workers but Jollied core team as well.This training will eliminate the possibility f postulated theories of the direction of the company in addition to reducing the prospect of Jollied losing control to outsiders as it once did when choosing to bring in Tony Kitchener; in turn this will reduce the risk of company divide between Jollied core team and the international department. Jolliness's continued success relies on its ability to learn as well as grow its own business. The alternative is the failure to comprehend what is taking place within its own walls and therefore losing control of the business they have fought to build. . Recommendations The previous material illustrated successes and mistakes of the Jollied Corporation. USSR growth in developing nations was highlighted for its importance to continued growth in the industry. Jolliness's ability to maintain its superiority in its home market was explored, and keeps its closest competitor, McDonald's, at bay. Mr.. Kitchener was responsible for building an elaborate International Division, and some of its initial success. Unfortunately, his approach didn't quite match the vision of the company, and may have lead to more strife than success.His departure opened the door for Mr.. Tinning, who was immediately faced with three huge challenges of improving upon existing markets, and moving into new ones. The three opportunities were explored, with Hong Kong determined to be the relatively safest challenge to undertake. The Hong Kong market was deemed a possible quick-win situation because of the existing successful restaurant. Host country recruitm ent could help in developing a menu that fits the local customer base better.Having a staff made up of both Filipino/Chinese employees would help with any language barriers that may be preventing new customers from choosing Jollied over other options. Finally, Jollied could improve business communication and decision making by adjusting its organizational structure. It was noted that menu adjustments with the Hong Kong market took an incredibly long time to be addressed due to the vertical organizational structure of the company. All decision-making has a centralized flow to ETC.